THEATRE EDUCATION ON CHILD LABOR AND WOMEN TRAFFICKING: A CASE STUDY OF WOTCLE
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 general background
1.2 statement of the problem
1.3 aims and objectives
1.5 definition of terms
2.0 Literature Review
2.2 child labour and women trafficking
2.3 factors Influencing Child Labour women trafficking
2.4 economic implication of child labour/ women trafficking
3.1 promotion of theatre Education as a preventive strategy
3.2 Analysis of selected Episodes of Izozo
3.3.1 Objectives of the foundation
3.3.2 Areas of focus
3.3.5 Foundation Administration
Child labour and women trafficking is an illicit and criminal, it is in the realization of this that some concerned civil society groups and organizations have decided to act/protest the situation.
This project is intended to expose some of the ills and far reaching effects of child labour and women trafficking in general. An attempt is made to posit the historical origin, the causes and problems of this dastardly act, and all that informed the emergence of ‘’women Trafficking and Child Labour Eradication Foundation’’ (WOTCLEF). This work examines the aims and objectives of the foundation. How much of its objectives have been accomplished, the problems and prospects of WOTCLEF, and how far its media and theatre Educational programmes have succeeded in reducing, eradicating child labour and women trafficking.
1.1 general Background
Child Trafficking is an illicit and criminal commercialization of the child. There are local and western ways of trafficking. A situation where criminally minded members of community plan and decide to act as agents of making young children available to kidnappers ritualises, money doublers, tricksters, in exchange for money is child trafficking.
Another situation where the middlemen enter into negotiation with some parents for the purpose of letting their young girls in particular go into towns to take up jobs as house helps, baby-sitters, street sellers/hawkers (child labour). Unsuspecting parents quickly succumb to the bargain because of poverty without knowing that his separation might be for life.
Some other children are manipulated, attracted and kidnapped in schools and outside schools with sweet, biscuits, chewing gum, chocolate and other attractive baits. Most of these victims in this class are girls who are made to believe that their position is to supplement the income of the family for training of the boys.
There was an example of a girl in Lagos who on being touched turned into Yam and was lifted along until a boy who witnessed the exercise raised an alarm and attracted people to the scene before the man responsible fled, he was apprehended by the police who forced him to reverse what be he did so.
It is pertinent to mention here too that this type of child trafficking is predominant in the rural localities and primitive villages where parents even rejoice that their daughters are going to live in towns’’ without knowing that the parting could be an everlasting one.
The second and more atrocious aspect of child trafficking is the reckless commercialization of female sexuality. By this dealers specialize in enticing and deceiving young girls with promises of a better life, good and sound education abroad and wonderful jobs as waitresses, models, sale clerks, factory workers, exotic dancers, or for purpose of matchmaking, in Europe most of their victims come from Africa especially Nigeria, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe.
These victims of child trafficking are shipped crossed, or smuggled through the neighbouring countries across the desert on a pilgrimage of sorrow, call it Modern Version of Slave Trade of the 14th – 18th Centuries.
This is a flagrant violation of the dignity of human beings and womanhood in particular. It is on record that more than 15,000 Nigerian women and children mostly from Edo State of Nigeria engage in this grade of prostitution in Italy alone. The number is staggering.
1.1.1 HISTORICAL CONNECTION
Child trafficking and prostitution has its connection with the people culture. Here in Nigeria for instance, the woman until recently was seen as a second class citizen in many places. She was limited to running minimal services like domestic errands and to be sacrificed and mortgaged for money whenever the family ran into financial problems.
Thus the total neglect of women, unequal participation and subjugation by both culture and time sort of degraded and dehumanized the female folk. In some communities girls are ’’sold’’ early in ages in marriage. The bride price is very high. Marriage by inheritance is common. A widow is made to pay back her dowry to free herself from the unfortunate, unfavourable an intolerable managed by inheritance. If she has no money, she would slave herself out to pay back or remain there in perpetual suffering. Only an economically based dowry repayment signifies the freedom and liberty of girl to remarry.
Thus girls are forced by circumstance and orientation to accept the culturally assumed supremacy of their husbands and male counter parts giving them control of their actions, speech and body voluntarily and thus given up all rights to income and land.
General speaking, immoral’ and unhuman cultures of many communities paved the way to female gender problems of today which child trafficking and prostitution is just but one.
In west and central Africa alone, some 200,000 children trafficked each year. Trafficked children are sent to work on a finishing vessel and plantations, in factories, and as marked peddlers, shop assistants, and domestic servants. Organized crime networks profit from their exploitation.
Children are sold mostly from Benin and Togo ending up in the relatively wealthy countries of Nigeria and Gabon. Other countries importing child labour in the region include Niger, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, and Ivory Coast. Often, parents who give up their children are manipulated into believing the Youths will receive better jobs or education opportunity.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The age long historical solidarity network through rural families send their children to urban and overseas relatives and friends to improve their chances of education and employment have degenerated into money transaction with a class of middlemen growing fat on the profits.
When war and oil exploration disrupts rural economies, children and young women are forced into the street. In Somalia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Burudi and Liberia, 10 year olds are sexually exploited at limitary camps. In Luanda, Catorinhas – 14 year olds – are now fashionable playthings. Even in peaceful regions, children are shipped to work as prostitutes in cities such as Duala, Lagos, Accra, Dakar, Libreville, Abidjan and Abuja. Young Zairians are sold across the river Congo. There are more than 70,000 child prostitutes in Zambia alone.
But often, traffickers who ferry children and women cannot be successfully prosecuted. Definitions of trafficking are inadequate and parents make things worse by believing the stories of a better life for their children. In many countries, legislation against the worst form of child labour and prostitution does not exist. In the absence of adequate national laws and the political will, they will continue to unwittingly exploit their own kin-and the rights of the child will remain a mere tradition.
It is against this background that concerned groups and intellectuals in the arts have decided to focus attention in the education and enlighten of all stakeholders through the theatre and media medium. How are they going about this arduous task? What milestones have been achieved so far? Is there any hope for marked success of the efforts?
There are some of the questions that will be answered when WOTCLEF as a case study is examined.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Societies are constantly in a state of continuous transformation and changing patterns. The theatre has been widely acknowledged to effectively reflect this through the ages (Locher 1971:235)
The basic aim of this essay is to explore the abundant possibilities available in the practice of theatre to nurture tame, enlighten and educate the young minds on the ills and far reaching effects of child labour and women trafficking. The objectives is to provide a document relevant to intellectuals authors, victims and all stakeholders wishing to contribute to the eradication of this crime.
The war against child labour and women trafficking is one against the untouchables, barons, mafias, the likes of Ali- and his cohorts, who are well connected and gratify high and the might in the government and society.
These groups are ready to hunt down any efforts at removing food from their mouth. They will go any length to disrupt the good intention of persons or organizations interested in eradicating child labour and women trafficking. This is a major limitation on the grounds that most of those involved in the campaign are sceptical about people coming to interview them or getting information from them for fear of falling into the wrong hands.
Another major limitations is the difficulty in getting literature on this subject. There are little or no textbooks on the subject. Getting material means looking for conferences and workshop material on the subject. This is no easy a task considering the huge financial involvement in traveling to source for their presentation papers at diverse locations. Sourcing the web is one of the ways of getting information on this subject. But is it also a big pain in this country in terms of money and time spent at business centres.
1.5 ABBREVATION/DEFINITION OF TERMS
WOTCLEF: women trafficking and child labour Eradication foundation.
UNICEF: United Nations International Children’s Education fund.
ILO: international Labour Organization.
IPEC: International Programme on Elimination of Child Labour
IACJL: International Association of Criminal Justice Lawyers.
IHRLG International Reproductive Right Law Group
IRRRAG: International Reproductive Rights Research Action Group
NCWA: National Council of Women societies.
ECPAT: End Child prostitution, Pornography and Trafficking
IOM: International Organization for Migration
AWEG: African Women Empowerment Guild
COSUDOW: committee for the support of the Dignity of women
GIP: Girls? Power initiative
UNDODC: United Nation as Office on Drugs and Crime
UNICRI: United Nations Interregional crime and Justice Research Institute
‘’agency’’ means the National Agency for Traffic in persons law enforcement and Administration.
‘’commercial carriers’’ means any persons or any public, private or other entity engaged in transporting persons, goods or mails for Remuneration, hire or nay other benefit.
‘’confiscation’’ or ‘’Swizure’’ means temporarily prohibiting the transfer, conversion, disposal or movement of property asset or money on the basis of attachment by the Agency;
‘’force’’ or ‘’Coercion’’ Includes obtaining or maintaining through an act or threat the labour, service or other activities of a person by physical, legal, psychological or mental coercion, abuse of authority.
‘’Trafficked person’’ means a person who has been victim of trafficking in persons.
‘’Trafficker’’ means a person who or an entity that intends to commit is complicities with or acquiesces to an act of trafficking in persons.
In this chapter we gave a general view and the historical trend of child labour and women trafficking. The justification for this work was linked to the shortfalls in the cultural history of the people. Which aided and supported this practice, I hereby beclouding he perception of the negative efforts. The objectives and the aims of the work is to provide information leading to the exploration and eradication of child labour and woman trafficking, though not without limitation.
THEATRE EDUCATION ON CHILD LABOR AND WOMEN TRAFFICKING: A CASE STUDY OF WOTCLE
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