THE impact OF OVERCROWDING ON STUDENTS' ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
Using Uselu Secondary School as a case study, this project gives broad information and understanding of the impact of overcrowding on the academic performance of pupils. The academic performance of students is a problem in all educational settings. According to educational psychologists, a conducive environment is essential to learning; therefore, class size and population must be carefully examined. Overcrowding in the classroom is a severe issue, as it leads to classroom congestion, which negatively affects learning and performance. Nonetheless, as a panacea or to limit overpopulation, specific measures must be done. This study was conducted to determine not only how overpopulation impacts kids, but also how it affects student interaction and the frequency with which teachers employ coping mechanisms. The findings revealed that overpopulation decreases the quality and quantity of teaching and learning, which has severe implications for achieving educational objectives. It is advised that the federal and state governments prioritize the construction of more classrooms and the provision of student furniture in their educational planning at all levels. Due to unrestricted growth, the educational system has been negatively impacted by the phenomena of overcrowded classrooms as well as low-quality and inadequate classroom furnishings. Few individuals will dispute that the quality of teaching and learning is declining across all levels of educational systems. In recent years, practically all topics on the senior secondary school test (SSCE) performed poorly, which is an important indicator. It is impossible to separate the rise in exam cheating from the bad seating arrangement caused by overpopulation and class structures. Due to the lack of space for movement and the overwhelming number of kids that the instructor must manage within a forty-minute lesson, the quality and quality of interaction in the classroom are likely to be negatively impacted. Nolasco and Arthu (2001) highlighted five probable overpopulation issues.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
With a growing population, the number of school-aged children is rising far more rapidly than the number of schools. The demise of strong institutions and the avarice of school administrators have led to overcrowded classrooms. There are numerous complaints from parents whose children attend schools where there is insufficient space for chairs and tables.
education has a crucial role in moulding the lives of all citizens within the communities in which they reside. For learning to be effective, the school or learning environment must be conducive; that is, a conducive setting aids students in their academics and paves the path for learning. Every educational system is centered on the classroom. Planning a curriculum is incomplete without implementation and evolution, both of which occur primarily in the classroom. The majority of class activities are conducted with pupils seated. The sitting arrangement is simply too vital to be neglected to the extent that it is in many secondary schools across the nation. When there are more pupils than available seats in a classroom due to overcrowding, the seating arrangement becomes quite complicated.
A place, community, or society is considered to be overpopulated when the available resources or facilities are insufficient to support its population. In educational settings or school systems, overpopulation can be defined as a situation in which the number of students or pupils in the school system exceeds the available resources. These include infrastructure facilities, such as buildings, ICT, etc. Performance in education refers to learning outcome; it is viewed as a student's capacity based on predetermined criteria. Simply put, student performance refers to the output or achievement following education. Educational planning in Nigeria has always been based on quantitative expansion, which typically exceeds the government's budgetary capacity (Adesina, 2000). A recent example is the implementation of the current 6-3-3-4 education system, which has been severely impacted by inadequate finance and inadequate preparedness. Despite the fact that the federal and state governments have demonstrated a significant commitment to educational growth through their annual budgetary allocations in recent years, the attention paid to physical infrastructure is far from adequate. Overcrowded classrooms offer a challenge for both teachers and pupils. Occasionally, disorderly behavior and excessive chatting make it difficult for teachers to manage a dozen children.
When given with the uniform duty of supervising more than 30 students at once, these same teachers will become completely disorganized. It makes impossible the basic chore of taking attendance. Especially adolescents who do not respond well to regulations and directives. However, some students are unable to concentrate due to the presence of other students. Because no student can concentrate on the subject at hand, the number of failures rises in packed classrooms. This is causing several problems in classrooms, which is resulting in disinterested students. The government must take action to reduce this issue and foster an educational atmosphere that motivates pupils to achieve better. Education is seen as an excellent tool for influencing national development in Nigeria today. As a result, the government has created a national policy on education to achieve a portion of its national objectives. Secondary education is intended to stress the preparation of students for meaningful living within society and for further education (NPE, 1981, p. 16), however if the low performance of secondary school pupils continues, these goals may not be realized. Overcrowding in the classroom reduces the effectiveness of instruction because the teacher cannot devote as much time to each student. When teachers are able to devote more time to each student, they can determine the best way to solve each student's problems in order to help them better comprehend the lesson, making instruction more effective.
Education is the best legacy a nation can leave its residents, especially its kids, due to the impact of overcrowding on academic performance. This is due to the fact that the development of any nation or community is highly dependent on the quality of its education. It is commonly thought that the development of human resources must serve as the foundation for any genuine growth, whereas formal education is viewed as the vehicle for socioeconomic development and social mobilization in any society. Numerous factors contribute to the existence of numerous problems in the Nigerian higher education system, as these problems influence not only the school environment but also the greater society. The demand for education resulted in a population expansion in schools and significant enrollment in higher education. The impact of school overcrowding on the academic achievement of pupils occurs when the school's facilities are inadequate to support proper teaching and learning.
This invariably indicates that the number of admitted pupils exceeds the school's available resources and staff. As a study of teacher over student population in higher education, the cause and effect would be highlighted and described in a few phrases. Also, the researcher does everything possible to propose a remedy for the problem of overpopulation in Nigerian educational institutions. Interviews and questionnaires will be used to obtain the information required to complete this project. This project's objective is to determine the impact of overpopulation on the academic performance of secondary school pupils in Egor Local Government Area, Edo State. Despite the government's interest and efforts to provide quality education, it is disheartening to see that kids' academic performance is not encouraging. Overpopulation has been cited as one of the reasons for this.
According to Olowo-Onyanemi et al (2003) in his book titled an introduction to business economics, overpopulation is described as a scenario in which the number of people living in a country exceeds the available resources, such as land. Overpopulation, according to Nwena (2000), occurs when the number of people inhabiting a certain geographical area exceeds the available resources. Obi (2005), in his book Philosophical Foundations of Education, states on page 143 that metropolitan schools must be large since overcrowding is typically a difficult problem to regulate. It is a well-established truth that overcrowding in schools impedes effective instruction and management. Overpopulation has led to low academic performance and transformed the school setting into a playground, rather than a learning environment, as a result of inadequate amenities, such as classrooms.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It is difficult for the researcher to collect data because there are insufficient data for this study. Time and money are other issues. To complete this goal, however, both primary and secondary data are utilized. The information was gathered through personal interviews, observation, questionnaires, and an examination of published materials in the form of journals, newspapers, handouts, and textbooks.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary aims of this study are to;
Analyze the impact of overpopulation on the academic performance of Uselu Secondary School students.
Determine and analyze the psychological impact of classroom overcrowding.
The purpose of the study is also to describe how classroom overcrowding affects teachers in the teaching/learning process.
It addresses the government's involvement in curbing overpopulation as a cure for the problem.
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
This project is extremely important because it will disclose the extent to which overpopulation has influenced the academic achievement of students. Additionally, it reveals additional issues affecting student performance due to overcrowding. In addition, this study will aid school administrators and teachers in devising methods to mitigate the impact of overcrowding on student academic performance. And according to educationists, the education curriculum and school structures will be strictly adhered to in order to facilitate student learning. More so, serving as a project to determine how overcrowding affects students' academic performance.
Finally, it will offer pertinent information and function as a research tool for people who require such materials.
Does class size effect the academic success of students in school?
Does seating position impact learning?
Does the number of students in a classroom influence their ability to concentrate?
Does school overcrowding effect student academic performance?
Does overpopulation impact the teaching/learning process?
Does the learning environment effect students' academic performance?
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Overpopulation can be described as a growth in the number of people living in one geographical area, and a place is considered to be overpopulated when the available resources cannot support the number of people residing there.
Academic: Relating to education, particularly school and university study.
Performance is an action or accomplishment evaluated in terms of its success. The capability to work with high efficiency.
A classroom is a facility or structure designed to organize pupils for learning purposes. It is referred regarded as the educational system's core.
THE IMPACT OF OVERCROWDING ON STUDENTS' ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE