BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The basic requirement for effective school administration is inherent in the ability of the principal to positively influence teachers, students and other members in the society in the realization of educational goals. The role of the school manager (who is often referred to as the principal in Nigeria secondary school system) equally includes being able to translate educational policies into programmes and actions in the school. The success or failure of the school depends to a large extent in his ability and capacity to affect desired educational goals. Thus, his role as an executive head of the school is enormous and therefore brings a lot of challenges in terms of being able to manage not only instructional programmes but also teachers and students of the school to bring about positive change.In terms of specific duty of the principal, (Ocho, 2010) stressed that the principal’s scope of work is “vast and intricate, and demands a lot of time, energy, dedication and sacrifice”. He further outlined some of the principal’s pre-occupations to include the following; managing instructional programmes, staff personnel administration, student personnel administration, financial and physical resources management and school-community relationship management. In summary, the principal is seen as a setter of the tone of the school; an exemplar and above all a leader whose actions to a large degree determine the success of the school (Aja-Okorie, 2010).It can be added that, one of the ways through which one can assess a good secondary school administrator is through the academic performance of students.
Academic performance refers to the rate at which educational objectives are being achieved by those within the school system (Owan, 2012). Therefore, students’ academic performance may be seen as the extent to which students are achieving educational goals and objectives. According to Erum and Zahoor (2011), students’ academic performance and graduation rates have been the area of interest, and investigation of factors related to the academic performance of secondary students has been a topic of much interest to scholars. This may be because the schools were established for the students, and their performance can be used to judge the entire school system effectiveness.
However, what is clear is that educational management in primary schools involves the application of management principles in designing, developing and effecting resources towards achievement of educational goals (Okumbe, 2001). This effectiveness according to UNESO (2009) is judged by the extent to which schools generally meet the expectations of the society within which they are established. Since independence, the Nigerian government has demonstrated commitment to the provision of quality primary school education through allocation of financial resources, provision of trained teachers and establishment of quality assurance department (Republic of Kenya, 2012a.2012b). According to Ohba (2009), shortage of teachers, lack of basic facilities, community interferences, poor teaching methodology and administrative related factors such as poor management of school resources have been noted as some of these factors.
Within Illorin, Kwara State Education zone, primary school pupils’ academic performance seems to be poor, dwindling or unstable. Many pupils are struggling academically as revealed in their poor performance when they take some classroom or external examinations. This issue has raised the concern of parents, teachers, and policy makers, who have been questioning the effectiveness of the school system not only within the zone, but also in Kwara State and Nigeria generally. In the past, primary school pupils’ poor academic performance was tied to poor supply of infrastructure, poor parental involvement, and students study habits among several other variables. However, with recent improvements in the raising and supply of buildings and other infrastructures by the Government, Non-Governmental organizations, and other interested parties, coupled with the improved involvement of parents in their children education, one expects to see a corresponding improvement in the academic performance of primary school students. Where this has not been clearly achieved, indicates that there are other problems within or outside the school system which may be contributing to such academic performance. On this note, the researcher considers problems associated with school administration and management as having a link to secondary school students’ academic performance.
Problems of school administration refer to those impediments that hinder the effective design, control and smooth running of the school system towards achieving predetermined objectives. There are many factors responsible for the poor management of schools in Nigeria. These include: leadership styles, communication patterns, and teachers’ behaviour, and infrastructural provision, adequacy of teachers, external supervision, and community interference. However, this study focused on three other critical areas of school management which include disciplinary control, classroom management, and teachers’ motivation.
Classroom management refers to the orderly and professional arrangement and coordination of classroom activities in order to provide an environment conducive for teaching and learning (Owan, 2012). According to Ahmad, Hussain, Alia, Mubarka and Batool(2017), classroom management procedures assume an indispensable part in upgrading learners’ learning. Classroom administration involves the exercises to arrange and guide classes to accomplish particular objectives. To keep up a positive learning condition in the classroom is instructor obligation. A very much oversaw classroom offers a helpful domain for compelling instructing and learning.
Teachers’ motivation refers to how teachers have a desire to perform better (Gitonga, 2012). According to Alarm and Farid (2011), motivation of teachers is very important as it affects the students directly. This fact is supported by Marques (2010) who concluded that motivation, satisfaction and performance are interdependent.
From the forgoing, it can be seen that there is need for improved students’ academic performance within and outside the education zone. The reason is that, schools were established because of students and their performance is of high value to all stakeholders concerned. It is based on these issues that it was considered pertinent to investigate the effects of school administration academic performance of primary school pupils in Illorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
To achieve the goals of primary education in Nigeria, there is need for increased academic performance of pupils in the primary school system. In an ideal situation, efforts were supposed to be made by all those concerned to improve students’ academic performance. The governments were supposed to provide all the relevant materials and infrastructures, incentives and other services that will promote good academic performance of students. The school principals were expected to use their expertise and professionalism to make the school environment conducive for teachers and students in order to boost their effectiveness and promote students’ academic performance.
Unfortunately, the quality of students’ academic performance especially in Illorin, kwara state Education has been an issue of serious debate. Many students in the area don’t seem to be performing well academically as indicated by their performance in internal and external examinations. Apart from poor performance in examinations, many primary school students in kwara state cannot read and write. Government had made efforts to send quality supervisors to schools for routine checks and inspection; they have improved their consistency in payment of teachers’ salaries, more infrastructure and now in supply to schools and so on. Many parents are now actively involved in the training of their children through regular payment of fees, supervision at home, and in ensuring that students are not at home during school hours. All these new measures were lacking in time past, but with these efforts made by the government, teachers, and parents, to improve pupils’ academic performance, there has not been any evident improvement in the performance of primary school pupils within the education zone corresponding to the efforts made.
It is based on these lingering issues that I wonder whether problems of school administration and management such as disciplinary control, classroom management, and teachers’ motivation could be contributing to primary school pupils’ academic performance in kwara state. An attempt to investigate and provide an answer to this question necessitated this study.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The main aim of the study is the effects of school administration on the academic performance of primary school pupils in Illorin Kwara State. Other specific objectives include:
1. to determine the relationship between school administration and the academic performance of primary school pupils in Illorin, Kwara State.
2. to ascertain the level of primary school pupils academic performance in Illorin Kwara State.
3. to examine the effects of school administration on the academic performance of primary school pupils in Illorin Kwara State.
4. to examine the influence of disciplinary control, classroom management, and teachers’ motivation on the academic performance of primary school pupils in Ilorin Kwara State.
5. to identify the challenges of improved educational system and academic performance in Illorin Kwara State.
6. to proffer solution to the challenges of improved educational system and academic performance in Illorin Kwara State.
1. what is the relationship between school administration and the academic performance of primary school pupils in Illorin, Kwara State?
2. what is the level of primary school pupils academic performance in Illorin Kwara State?
3. what are the effects of school administration on the academic performance of primary school pupils in Illorin Kwara State?
4. what is the influence of disciplinary control, classroom management, and teachers’ motivation on the academic performance of primary school pupils in Ilorin Kwara State?
5. what are the challenges of improved educational system and academic performance in Illorin Kwara State?
6. what is the solution to the challenges of improved educational system and academic performance in Illorin Kwara State?
STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1. H0: school administration has no significant effect on the academic performance of primary school pupils in Illorin Kwara State.
2. H1: school administration has a significant effect on the academic performance of primary school pupils in Illorin Kwara State.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
There are factors that researchers and school systems point when describing quality schools and features of schools that have improved in effectiveness and in performance. According to Zepeda (2004) and Fullan (1991), such features include: Commitment to success for all; flexibility and responsiveness; Shared vision; climate of challenging and stimulating teaching; strong and fair disciplinary climate. According to Lamb (2007), the most effective programmes were: foster connectedness; increasing the trust placed in students; Provide tasks with immediate tangible benefits; Make spaces within schools and curricula for diverse student needs. Principals in schools achieving high retention rates and good performance, Socias, Dunn, Parrish, Muraki and Woods (2007) were clear that these implementations should not be ad hoc.
The study will help school management in getting high quality teachers, those most capable of helping their students learn, have deep mastery of their subject matter and pedagogy (Darling-Hammond, 1997). A number of teachers in kwara, Nigeria observed to master neither the subject matter they taught nor the pedagogical skills required for good presentation of the material (Carron & Chau, 1996). This affects retention and educational quality since student achievement, especially beyond the basic skills, depends largely on teacher’s command of subject matter and their ability to use that knowledge to help students learn and improve their academic performance (Mullens, Murnane & Willet, 1996).
The undertaking of the study lay on effects of school administration on the academic performance of primary school pupils lead to utilisation of the educational objectives in their respective schools. The study findings will reveal different ways that can be used by the heads of schools in the implementation of curriculum to realize healthy outcomes.
Furthermore, other education administrators would use the findings to improve the supervision of education in Illorin, Kwara State. In addition, the improvement in school administration was expected to create favourable environment for the pupils to learn comfortably and effectively. As a result, quality education would be provided in schools and yield the expected outcome of education. Students would pass their examinations and leave schools well prepared with all necessary skills to enable them thrive in difficult social and economic environment.
Also, the study will be able to contribute effectively in the social transformation and be good citizens. On top of that, the findings of the study could be used by different education stakeholders such as the government, community, influential people, political leaders, teachers and parents to look for solutions that would help to overcome challenges that face our educational system. Therefore, study findings and suggested solutions would be very useful to educational administrators, policy makers, decision makers, community, NGOs and any agencies dealing with education.
Finally, the study will serve as research tool and material for further investigation and study by other researchers on this study.
SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of study will cover the effects of school administration on the academic performance of primary school pupils in Illorin Kwara State.
LIMITATION OF STDUY
1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Effects: a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
School administration: School administration involves the management of all school operations, from creating a safe learning environment to managing the school budget. To further define school administration, one needs to consider the different areas of school administration and who performs these school administrative duties.
Academic performance: Academic performance or “academic achievement” is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement
Primary school pupil: If you are a pupil, you are a learner enrolled in an educational institution.