1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the face of widespread insecurity of lives and property, no nation can achieve long-term development. The threat of supranational insecurity posed by organized high-profile crimes perpetrated through transnational syndication and racketeering has always posed a threat to nations' survival. Corruption, terrorism, ritualism, extrajudicial killings, kidnapping, religious and electoral violence are all rampant in Nigeria today. These problems have wreaked havoc on the economy, security, and human lives. Scholars have identified the devastating effects that insecurity issues have on a country's economic development and have called for the fight against insecurity to be bolstered.
Abduction is a by product of terrorism and social vices that have spread throughout the world. It is an endemic disease that has spread throughout Nigeria's states. It is a process of kidnapping people and holding them hostage in exchange for a ransom payment. Abducting dates back to the 17th century in Britain, when children from wealthy families were kidnapped for “ransom while sleeping (nap).” Abducting is a notorious and nefarious practice carried out by criminals with the intent of kidnapping and holding students hostage for a ransom payment. Student kidnapping is a nefarious, villainous, terrible, and seasonal crime that threatens Nigeria's security. Authorities say “bandits,” a loose term for kidnappers, armed robbers, cattle rustlers, Fulani herdsmen, and other armed militia operating in the region who are primarily motivated by money, have attacked schools in the north-west.
Boko Haram's ideology includes a strong opposition to secular education, and the group has gained notoriety for its repeated attacks on schools and universities, as well as teachers, administrators, and students, wreaking havoc on an already fragile educational system. Boko Haram has killed an estimated 2,295 teachers, and the conflict has forced over 19,000 teachers to flee their homes. More than 1,400 schools have been destroyed, damaged, or looted, according to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), with more than 600,000 children losing access to education (UNICEF, 2017). The targeted attacks on schools by Boko Haram, as well as the kidnapping of schoolchildren, have harmed students' access to education. Many of the students had to put their education on hold after their school was bombed, or had to drop out indefinitely as a result of the attacks. Poverty has become the single biggest impediment to education in North Eastern Nigeria, and the war has made it even more difficult for parents to pay for school expenses. In addition to economic concerns, parents were concerned that their children would not be able to return to school. Many schools were also closed for significant periods due to insecurity, or because the school had been destroyed or seriously damaged during the attacks.
Following the abduction of 276 students from Government Girls College in Chibok, the Bokoharam sect's operations and actions against education came to light. This widely publicized case of school kidnapping added a new dimension to Nigeria's insecurity issue, as numerous secondary school attacks were recorded afterward. Teachers and students have been kidnapped in the past. There have been cases of students and teachers being murdered. Bombs have been detonated in school assemblies, killing dozens of students (Yobe school attack), and school buildings have been burned down, putting teaching and learning on hold. Five secondary school teachers were kidnapped at gunpoint from a school in Rivers State, according to Iheamnachor (2015), leaving the locals terrified and tense. There have also been reports of religiously induced crises affecting schools. (Mission secondary schools located in Nassarawa area of Jos was attacked by muslim extremists). Cases of dormitory raping were also reported while many of these school attacks are not reported. According to recent statistics, between 2009 and 2018, approximately 2,295 teachers were killed and 19,000 others were displaced in Bornu, Yobe, and Adamawa States, while an estimated 1,500 schools were destroyed since 2014, with over 1,280 casualties among teachers and students (Adesulu, 2019). Many of these incidents were never reported in the national media, causing the true situation to be misrepresented. These attacks stifle effective teaching and learning, putting a halt to our country's progress. Insecure school environments, according to Akintunde and Musa (2016), have an impact on children's learning.
Attacks on schools frequently result in vandalism and outright destruction of school facilities, discouraging the opening of new schools. As a result, government resources are depleted as funds intended for other development projects are diverted to dealing with the fallout from terrorist attacks. Finally, educational attainment in terms of graduate quality and manpower suffers, which has an impact on overall national development goals. Despite the overwhelming need for education, the sector has received limited funding to date, and only a few actors are currently implementing education programs.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In May 2015, the Nigerian government endorsed the Safe School Declaration. The Nigerian government has also developed a number of initiatives and measures to rebuild schools and improve school security, with the help of international donors and humanitarian organizations, as well as national and international NGOs. However, it is unclear how many schools have benefited from these initiatives to date. The kidnapping of Dapchi is a stark reminder that girls and women in Nigerian schools are still vulnerable to violence. For decades, the north of Nigeria has been marginalized, and this, combined with widespread corruption, deep poverty, and a lack of trust in the government, has undoubtedly fueled the conflict and contributed to its devastating consequences. The emergency has also put additional strain on an already strained and failing educational system. It also highlights Nigerian security forces' ongoing struggle to provide adequate protection for schools in the northeast and prevent female students from being kidnapped. In addition to political leadership failure and other systemic institutional uncertainties/irregularities in Nigeria, a lack of proactive security planning has resulted in a recurrent and diverse set of school-related insecurity issues. The importance of adequately securing vulnerable school environments cannot be overstated, as no nation grows beyond its level of educational development. The entire educational system, as well as its infrastructure, must be secured. One of the most pressing issues confronting modern states is how to ensure national security in the face of numerous and ever-increasing security threats.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of school children abduction on educational development. Other specific objectives are as follows;
- To examine the factors encouraging abducting of school children in Northern Nigeria
- To examine the impact of school children abduction on educational development in Northern Nigeria
- To assess the relationship between education and insecurity problems associated with abducting in Nigeria
- To ascertain the sustainability of government interventions in Nigerian Educational system
- To examine the consequences of abducting school children in Northern Nigeria
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What are the factors encouraging abducting of school children in Northern Nigeria?
- What is the impact of school children abduction on educational development in Northern Nigeria?
- What is the relationship between education and insecurity problems associated with abducting in Nigeria?
- How is the sustainability of government interventions in Nigerian Educational system?
- What are the consequences of abducting school children in Northern Nigeria?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: School children abduction has no impact on educational development in Northern Nigeria
H1: School children abduction has a significant impact on educational development in Northern Nigeria
H0: There is no significant relationship between education and insecurity problems associated with abducting in Nigeria
H1: There is a significant relationship between education and insecurity problems associated with abducting in Nigeria
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study helped in understanding that insurgency is a weapon that is used to destroy not only the physical settings of a society, but the plan of investment a society made on its self, in order to achieve better standard of living in the future. The study would help the country to understand that their aims and objectives can be achieved by their dedication, hard work and determination. As such, development of Nigeria depends on the attainment of better education which can only be achieved, if the country is not distracted or affected by any forms of violence, such as insurgency. Therefore, Nigerian Government by them self will involve infighting against anything that can distract them in achieving their aims and objectives. The study also helped the government to understand that, for education to serve as an engine of growth and development, it needs proper protection and priority. Similarly, the entire country has to be protected against any destructive elements, such as Boko Haram insurgency, corruption, embezzlement of public funds etc. Furthermore, the study is of assistance to policy makers in terms of making policies that can ensure peace and stability.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to evaluation of the impact of school children abduction on educational development, a case study of Northern Nigeria.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Abduction: Is the unlawful transportation and confinement of a person against their will. It can include anything from tying someone up, gagging them, or stuffing them in a box. The asportation/abduction element is typically but not necessarily conducted by means of force or fear. That is, the perpetrator may use a weapon to force the victim into a vehicle, but it is still kidnapping if the victim is enticed to enter the vehicle willingly
Educational Development: Educational development is the ongoing evolution of teaching and learning across the entire university. It is both theory and practice, both a discipline and a profession and both with clarity and uncertainty.
Adesulu, D. (2019). Effects of insurgency attacks on education in the North East. Vanguard News. Retrieved from www.vanguardngr.com, May 9.
Akintunde, O.O.(2015). Essentials of educational psychology and creativity. Aflame Publishing House. Ibadan
Iheamnachor, D. (2015). Abductors of five teachers in Rivers demand 25m Naira ransom, Vanguard News. Retrieved from www.vanguardngr.com,April 16
Tzanelli, R. (2009). Capitalizing on Value: Towards a sociological understanding of kidnapping. Sociology, 40(5), 929-947.
UNICEF, “Making Schools Safer and Students more Confident,” September 22, 2017, https://www.unicef.org/nigeria/media_11644.html (accessed October 15, 2017).
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