THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON ECONOMICS LEARNING AND TEACHING IN NIGERIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The study aimed to investigate the effects of economics instructional materials on economics learning and teaching, as well as the effects of these instructional materials on the academic performance of some secondary school students in some selected secondary schools in Lagos state's Isolo Local government Area. To accurately evaluate the effect of instructional materials on the application of learning economics in secondary schools in Nigeria, a well-designed and simple questionnaire was distributed to economics teachers in these selected schools.
In terms of methodology, the researcher used a survey research design with a sample size of twenty (20) teachers and eighty (80) students chosen using a stratified sampling technique. The study made use of both primary and secondary data. Primary data for the study came from questionnaires, while secondary data came from text books, the internet, journals, and magazines.
The results of hypothesis three testing indicate that there will be a significant positive difference in secondary school students' performance in Economics language when they are taught the subject with instructional materials. The use of instructional materials in Economics teaching and learning clearly improves student performance.
Schools should provide teachers with enough instructional materials to help them clarify their lesson. Adequate infrastructure and a conducive environment are required for effective learning and retention of what is learned. Schools should send their Economics teachers to seminars and workshops to keep their knowledge up to date.
1.1 STUDY BACKGROUND
The impact of instructional materials on student academic performance, teaching and learning, and educational development is undeniable. Economics education in Nigerian secondary schools must be handled properly. The materials used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject points at our education system's primary and secondary school levels is undeniably a critical issue in practical classroom interaction and successful knowledge transfer from the teacher to the learners.
Instructional materials are materials that help teachers make their lessons clear to students. They are also used to communicate information, ideas, and notes to students (Ijaduola) (1997). Pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers, and other visual and audiovisual materials are examples of instructional materials. These materials supplement the regular instructional processes.
Economics as a subject first appeared in 1776 with the publication of Adam Smith, the protagonist of the classical school of thought; since then, it has played numerous roles, particularly in political and educational circles. Economics is divided into two major categories: microeconomics and macroeconomics. While microeconomics examines the behavior and operations of individual economic units (households, businesses, and government agencies), macroeconomics examines the entire economy in aggregates and averages (Umoh, 2007).
According to Aromolaran (2006), three major languages are used in economic teaching and communication. Theory or verbal language, geometric or graphical language, and algebraic or mathematical language are examples of these languages.
Economics is an important subject that students must credit before being admitted to any tertiary institution, particularly the university, to study relevant courses such as Accountancy, Business Administration, Insurance, and so on. Because of the importance and technicality of this subject, appropriate instructional materials must be used to teach it to students.
This fact is supported by Macaulay (1989), who claims that visual aids bring lessons to life and help students learn more effectively.
Against this backdrop, this study seeks to investigate the extent to which the use of instructional materials can improve senior secondary school students' economic performance.
Poor academic achievement in Economics could be attributed to a variety of factors, one of which was the teacher's strategy. This implies that without the use of instructional materials, mastery of Economics concepts may be limited. Economics instruction without instructional materials will almost certainly result in poor academic achievement. According to Franzer, Okebukola, and Jegede (1992), a professionally qualified science teacher, no matter how well trained, will be unable to put his or her ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the necessary equipment and materials.
According to Bassey (2002), science is resource intensive, and during an economic downturn, it may be difficult to find some of the electronic gadgets and equipment needed for adequate Economics teaching in schools. A situation that is exacerbated by the country's soaring inflation and, at times, the discovery that some imported sophisticated materials and equipment are too expensive and irrelevant; thus, the need to produce materials locally.
According to Obioha (2006) and Ogunleye (2002), there are insufficient resources for teaching Science subjects in Nigerian secondary schools. They went on to say that the ones that are available are usually in poor condition. As a result, improvisation is required.
However, Adebimpe (1997) and Daramola (2008) noted that improvisation requires adventure, creativity, curiosity, and perseverance on the part of the teacher, and that such skills are only attainable through a well-planned improvisation training program.
1.2 THE PROBLEM'S STATEMENT
The fundamental goal of teaching is to transfer ideas, skills, and attitudes from the teacher to the learner. In Nigeria, for example, experience has shown that speaking words alone are ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes. Every year, when the results of the public examination are released, there is a massive failure in Economics.
This could be attributed to the fact that there are topics in Economics that pose serious comprehension challenges to students. These topics cannot be taught effectively unless appropriate instructional materials are used to make the learning practical. Scholars such as Mutebi and Matora (1994) have previously emphasized the impact of instructional materials use on teaching and learning.
According to them, we learn and remember 10% of what we hear, 40% of what we discuss with others, and up to 80% of what we directly experience or practice. However, the question here is whether the use of instructional materials has any effect on students' academic performance. Is the use of instructional materials beneficial to teaching effectiveness?
Could the use of instructional materials help students learn more? Finding answers to these and other questions summarizes the overall problem of this study.
1.3 THE STUDY'S OBJECTIVES
For this Research Project, the following are the study's objectives:
To investigate the impact of instructional material use on the teaching of Economics in Lagos State Senior Secondary Schools.
To determine the extent to which the use of instructional materials can influence Senior Secondary School students' learning of Economics.
To determine whether the use of instructional materials will affect the academic performance of secondary school students in Economics.
1.4 QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH
To achieve the study's objectives, the following research questions were posed to guide the investigation:
Will the use of instructional materials affect Economics teaching and application in senior secondary schools?
To what extent can the use of instructional materials influence senior secondary school students' learning of Economics?
Will the use of instructional materials affect the academic performance of senior secondary school students in Economics?
1.5 THEORIES OF RESEARCH
For the study, the following null hypotheses were proposed.
The use of instructional materials will have no significant impact on Economics teaching in senior secondary schools.
The use of instructional material will have no significant impact on secondary school students' economics learning.
There will be no discernible difference in students' economic performance as a result of the use of instructional materials.
1.6 THE STUDY'S SIGNIFICANCE
In the teaching and learning process, the use of instructional materials allows the learner to touch, smell, or taste objects. As a result, knowledge conveyed to students at various levels of educational instruction should be well planned and properly allied with relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility. As a result, the importance of this study to students, teachers, curriculum planners, the educational system, and society at large cannot be overstated.
The effective use of instructional materials would enable students to effectively learn and retain what they have learned, advancing their performance in the subject in question. This is because, according to Nwadinigwe (2000), learning is a process in which knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas, and principles are acquired, retained, and applied, and the only way to do so is through the use of instructional materials.
The research would help teachers improve their teaching effectiveness and productivity. This is consistent with the assertion of Ekwueme and Igwe (2001), who stated that only teachers can ensure effective and adequate use of instructional materials and thus facilitate success. As a result, a teacher who uses appropriate instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help to improve students' innovative and creative thinking as well as their ability to be spontaneous and enthusiastic.
According to Oremeji (2002), any teacher who takes advantage of these resources and learns how to use them correctly will find that they make an almost incalculable contribution to instruction. He goes on to say that instructional materials are extremely valuable in terms of importing information, clarifying difficult and abstract concepts, stimulating thought, sharpening observation, creating interest, and satisfying individual differences.
The study is also important for the educational system and society as a whole. This is because when teachers supplement their instruction with instructional materials and students learn effectively, the knowledge gained has a positive impact on society. Students will be able to understand how the economy works, interpret the government's economic policies and activities, and perform economically better in their life and work choices.
1.7 STUDY OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this research is to look into the impact of instructional materials on the performance of senior secondary school students in Economics in Lagos State. The study is limited to the Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos due to time and financial constraints.
This is because the researcher lives in this local government area and thus has a thorough understanding of the area and its surroundings. Furthermore, the study only includes S.S.-2 students from senior secondary schools in Lagos State's Kosofe Local Government Area.
1.8 STUDY LIMITATIONS
The researcher's only limitation in carrying out this study was the delay in receiving data from the various respondents. Because of their hectic schedules and the nature of their jobs, most respondents were hesitant to fill out questionnaires. The researcher found it difficult to collect responses from the various respondents, which almost jeopardized the study's success.
1.8 TERM DEFINITION
The terms defined below were operationally defined in relation to their use in this study.
The change (outcome) brought about in a person (s) or thing by another person (s) or thing; it is the way in which an event, action, or person changes someone or something.
Academic performance is defined as the demonstration of knowledge gained or skills demonstrated in school subjects; such achievements are indicated by test scores or marks assigned by teachers.
It is the school evaluation of students' classroom work as measured by marks or grades.
Utilization: The act of putting something to use for a specific purpose.
Instructional Material: The materials used by the teacher to make the lesson more interesting and understandable.
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THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON ECONOMICS LEARNING AND TEACHING IN NIGERIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS