Project Materials










The Study's Background

According to the National Population Commission (), Nigeria has a total population of 170 million people, with 67 percent living in rural and the remaining 34 percent living in urban areas. Nigeria is a country in West Africa, close to the equator, extending from latitude 4 N to 14 and from longitude 3 E to 15 E. Nigeria is surrounded by -speaking countries, with the exception of the Atlantic Ocean to the south. These countries are Niger, Cameroon, and Republic. Nigeria is a third-world country, which means it is still developing.


However, the fact that the majority of the population lives in rural areas suggests that rural areas require more infrastructure development, such as good roads, electricity, and good and well-equipped schools, for the growth and betterment of the people who live there.

In Nigeria, however, the opposite is true. Because urban centers are more densely populated, they require more infrastructure than rural areas, more attention is paid to them at the expense of rural areas. This perception has created an imbalance between the urban core and the rural dwellers. Because of this disparity, urban areas are rapidly expanding while rural areas are stagnating and depreciating at an alarming rate.


In the case of Mushin Local Government Area in Lagos State, one of the local governments with a population of about 1.6 million people, 74% of whom live in rural areas, basic infrastructure for growth and development is lacking. Furthermore, it is widely acknowledged that education has a greater impact on rural development in developing countries.

As a result, education has a controlling influence on the development of rural societies, communities, individuals or groups of individuals, and families, resulting in a reduction in the low income rate, poverty, and rural-urban migration.


Although education has had a significant impact on rural areas in terms of personnel maintenance, farm production systems, health care, and good governance, the government's failure to address rural development and recognize the importance of rural areas and rural people to economic development remains an issue.


Learning is the primary goal of education, which is accomplished through the teaching and learning process. Plato (437-337 BC) stated that “aesthetic education brings grace to the body and nobility to the mind.” “Man is not capable of spiritual liberty until he has become accustomed to the laws of beauty in his physical and sensual mode of being.” As a result, education would be incomplete if rural areas were not given due consideration.

Education is important in this regard because it provides a very convenient and powerful medium for individuals to express themselves in a variety of situations, including his mental skill in relation to overall academic performance.

However, it is unfortunate that some schools in rural areas have no classrooms and those that do have classrooms lack furniture; in some schools, teaching is done in makeshift classrooms, which can be uninspiring and boring. In this study, inadequate and half-baked teachers in some secondary schools are also a source of concern (Madeki S.J (2008)).


Education has an impact on social change by improving individuals' social standing as well as their standard of living. Education also improves rural people's critical ability to diagnose their needs, assert their rights, and take greater control of decisions affecting their lives. Education has the potential to respond to rural transformation by increasing labor force and improving security.

The National Policy on Education (FRN, 1981) stated that teachers in all educational institutions, including universities, should be professionally trained because education is viewed as a tool for integrating individuals into society in order to achieve self-realization, develop national consciousness, promote unity, and strive for social-economic, political, scientific, cultural, and technological progress.


Durojaiye (1996) identifies three factors that are immediately relevant to education:


1. The learner, his growth and development, his needs and motivation, his individual characteristics and achievement, his nutritional state, and his parents' child-rearing approach


2. The learning situation, the school and society at large, the cultural context, and its effects on learning


3. The learning process and the teacher who facilitates it, including his approach, method, and personality.


Education has brought about remarkable changes in all aspects of human life.


According to (2011), education is a process that causes changes in societal behavior. It enables every individual to efficiently and effectively participate in societal activities and contribute to the advancement of society. Education raises awareness in rural areas about their right to an education, as stated in Article 26 of the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights (1984):


1. Every person has the right to an education.


2. Education must be free at the elementary and fundamental levels.




3. Primary education will be mandated.


4. Education will be made widely available, and higher education will be open to all on the basis of merit.


Concentrating education in urban areas rather than rural areas has done more harm than good; it has accelerated rural-urban migration, resulting in youth unemployment. As a result, rural areas become overgrown or underdeveloped.

Education increases people's capacity by broadening their area of competence and changing their orientation and attitude, all of which significantly improve people's lives in both rural and urban areas. According to the World Bank, education policies and programs at both the national and local levels must be carefully designed.


The impact of education on health is undeniable, particularly in terms of mortality rates. However, in order to reduce Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR), Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), and achieve the lowest possible Total Rate (TFR) in rural areas, education plays a critical role. Better education of a female child or passing through a learning process can drastically reduce maternal and infant mortality; it will also have a positive impact on family health, birth spacing, few children, and fertility related issues.


Education can initiate social change by changing man's outlook and attitude; it can also cause a shift in the pattern of social relationships, resulting in social change. This social change can be good behavior, respect for elders, and following one's culture, all of which have been influenced by education in the rural development process.

Regardless, education in Nigeria is now more of a private enterprise, but a massive government enterprise that has seen a progressive evolution of government complete and dynamic intervention and active participation. Nigeria's federal government has identified education as a critical tool for achieving national development.


Statement of the Problem


This study aims to look into the differences between urban and rural areas in terms of the educational rural development process.


The disparity between urban and rural areas caused by the conduciveness of the environment, the availability of manpower, and the availability of facilities in the teaching and learning process.


Another issue that curriculum planners, teachers, and even education ministries are concerned about is textbook selection or recommendation.


Research Issues


1. Is there a link between education and the provision of basic infrastructure in Lagos State's Mushin Local Government Area?


2. Is there a link between education and the rural development process in Mushin Local Government Area, Lagos State?


3. Does education have an impact on rural areas in Mushin Local Government Area, Lagos State?


4. Is there a link between education and social change in Lagos State's Mushin Local Government Area?




The following hypotheses underpin this study.


1. In Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State, there is no significant relationship between education and the provision of basic infrastructure.


2. In Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State, there is no significant relationship between education and the rural development process.


3. Education has no significant impact on rural areas in Mushin Local Government Area, Lagos State.


4. In Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State, there is no significant difference between education and social changes.


The Study's Purpose


The goal of this study is to examine the role of education in the rural development process in Mushin Local Government Area, Lagos State.


It will also look into whether there is a link between education and the rural development process in Mushin Local Government Area.


Also, to determine whether people in Mushin Local Government Area benefit from basic infrastructure.


To assess the impact of education in Mushin Local Government Area's rural areas.


To determine whether education has improved social changes in Mushin Local Government Area's rural areas.


The Study's Importance


When completed, this study will benefit students, tertiary institutions, teachers, and educational ministries. Furthermore, the study will attempt to provide adequate and sufficient information for educational policy and curriculum planners, with a particular focus on the rural development process. Without a doubt, the study will assist education ministries in making useful and important recommendations on how to develop rural areas.


Curriculum designers may receive vital information about the problem being experienced in rural areas in teaching and learning and may adopt a system of problem solving that will eliminate the difference and bridge the larger gap between urban and rural areas.


Regardless, the study will undoubtedly enrich libraries with useful copies of papers as researchers in Mushin Local Government Area, in particular, and Nigeria in general. It will also provide pertinent information to researchers who are potentially interested in educational research.


The Study's Scope


This study is intended to demonstrate the areas in which the research is conducted; it includes both male and female Mushin Local Government Council employees because the research is not affected by gender.


The Study's Limitations


This study is intended to include all senior staff from Mushin Local Government Area in Lagos State. However, due to financial constraints, only 40 senior staff members were used for the study. The findings of this study will be applied to all senior staff in Mushin Local Government Area, Lagos State.


Term Definitions


Impact: a noticeable effect or influence.


Imbalance is defined as a lack of proportion or balance.


Stagnant: exhibiting little activity.


Extremely: To a large extent, extremely.


The pivot is the central point.


A discrepancy is defined as a difference or lack of compatibility between two or more facts that should be similar.


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