THE ROLE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL IN SOCIAL STUDY TEACHING
The purpose of this study was to look into the role of instructional materials in the teaching of Social Studies in secondary schools in Edo State. Data were collected using a questionnaire during the study, and it was discovered that the location of instructional materials is very important in the teaching of Social Studies in secondary schools. As a result, the researcher emphasized the importance of instructional materials in any school setting.
Furthermore, she emphasized that instructional materials will increase students’ interest in learning, a development that will enable the child to become a useful member of society. Finally, it was suggested that instructional materials be used in all schools in Edo State in order for effective teaching and learning to take place.
THE STUDY’S BACKGROUND
Educators are well aware that educational experiences involving the learner actively participating in concrete examples are remembered longer than abstract experiences. Instructional materials add realism to learning by providing concrete examples. Many authors have written about the use of instructional materials in Social Studies and other related subjects to improve teaching for desired social and behavioral change.
Mcluhan (1964), Alaka (1978), Kochar (1986), Okafor (1988), Mkpa (1989), UNDP (1998), Heeks (1999), World Bank (1999), Aguokogbuo (2000), Koert (2000), Greenwood (2001), Bozimo (2002), Nwant to-Nzewunwa (2003), and Adekeye (2003) are among the authors (2008).
More specifically, it was emphasized in these authors’ work that the use of instructional materials is a sine qua non in influencing the behavior of learners in any field, particularly social studies. Some of the authors also demonstrated that these materials are important catalysts of social re-engineering and change. It goes without saying that social studies teaching and learning cannot be done effectively without the use of instructional materials.
The explanation is not far-fetched. Technology advancements have pushed instructional materials, particularly projected and electronic materials, to the forefront as the most radical tools of globalization and social development, positively affecting the classroom teaching learning situation.
Technology or technological breakthroughs such as networked and non-networked projected and non-projected, visual, auditory, and audio-visual electronic materials are significant milestones in knowledge transfer. Both teaching and learning become pleasurable experiences with them.
Instructional materials have some inherent advantages that set them apart in social studies education. For one thing, they provide teachers with engaging and compelling platforms for conveying information by motivating students to want to learn more and more. Furthermore, by providing opportunities for private study and references, learners’ interest and curiosity are increased.
Furthermore, the teacher is helped to overcome physical challenges that could have hampered his effective presentation of a given topic. They make teaching and learning more enjoyable and less stressful in general. They are equally important catalysts of the learners’ social and intellectual development.
According to Bolick (2003), there is a positive relationship between social studies teaching and the use of instructional materials. While some educators have been enthralled by the potential of instructional materials to improve teaching and learning, he contends that teachers have lagged in their use of instructional materials during teaching and learning.
Others expressed doubts that instructional materials will ever inspire social studies teaching reform. Instructional materials are essential components of the teaching-learning process. It is intended to supplement rather than replace learning.
Instructional materials are objects such as printed materials, audio, and visual aids in the successful delivery of social studies lessons (Chuba 2000: 101). To that end, instructional materials are objects or things that the teacher can use in the classroom while teaching to alleviate his teaching activities. However, instructional materials cannot solve all teaching and learning problems, but they can help a lot. This is because they are an additional apparatus that can influence the reality of teaching and learning activities.
According to Joof (1995: 85), the concept of teaching aids has evolved through several stages, beginning with simple aids and progressing to instructional technology, media, communication, and educational technology. This, however, indicates that instructional materials are more than just objects or equipment used during the teaching learning process; they are also objects that the teacher has improvised in order to make conceptual abstraction more concrete and practical to the learners.
Instructional materials are relevant materials used by a teacher during the social studies instructional process to make the instructions more practical and less vague. Instructional materials are essential components of any teaching and learning process. It has been discovered that ordinary words or verbalization are insufficient for effective teaching.
Instructional materials act as a conduit for the spread of messages, information, ideas, and knowledge. As a result, they can be manipulated, seen, heard, walked on, or discussed. They make activities easier. They are anything or anyone to whom the teacher turns for assistance in his learning process (ESU & Umoren 1998).
Instructional materials organized the intellect of the learners and eliminated boredom. Quick learning and accuracy are two of the distinguishing characteristics of instructional materials. They make the work easier, more appealing, accurate, neater, and aid in the understanding of social studies concepts.
Social studies must be experienced in order to be effectively learned. Social studies is so intertwined with every child’s life that no teacher should ever be without social studies instructional materials. One of the most significant disadvantages of using instructional materials is a lack of instructional materials.
Teaching of social studies in terms of its scope and nature, which is multidimensional, integrative, and dynamic, cannot take effect without the use of instructional materials; therefore, teaching of social studies contents must focus not only on making teachers competent in using instructional materials, but also on promoting strategies that enable the integration of instructional materials that enhances teaching and learning of social studies goals and objectives.
Instructional materials are used by teachers to assist and encourage students or pupils in their learning activities. They went on to describe instructional materials as a tool that a teacher can easily use to correct misconceptions and illustrate concepts that students cannot forget. The primary goal of using instructional materials in social studies instruction is to achieve outstanding results.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Although the use of instructional materials in social studies instruction has been extensively researched, many questions remain unanswered. The need for exploring locally available materials in our schools, as well as the teacher’s resourcefulness, must be in line with the learners’ curriculum and environment, so that classroom teaching is not hampered by a lack of funds. The issues are that instructional materials are not available in our schools, and teachers are not improvising or using them.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1. Determine the function of instructional materials in social studies instruction.
2. Determine how well the instructional materials available, types, and selections are suited to the teaching of social studies content.
3. To identify the issues with the use of instructional materials.
4. To assess teachers’ knowledge and competency in the selection of instructional materials, as well as the reasons why they do not use the instructional materials.
QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH
The study asked and answered the following questions:
1. How frequently do social studies teachers use instructional materials in their lessons?
2. What are the issues with using instructional materials in social studies instruction?
3. What are the reasons for teachers not using instructional materials?
4. What are the advantages of instructional materials for students?
5. What are the proposed solutions to the issues?
THE STUDY’S IMPORTANCE
It is obvious that instructional materials affect all aspects of teaching. The study’s findings have implications for all processes of acquiring knowledge because they provide insight into the importance and procedures for selecting and using instructional materials in the teaching learning process of any subject.
As prospective teachers in the field of social studies and any other discipline would also have a strong background in manipulating and integrating instructional materials with teaching, the integrity of teaching and learning would be rekindled.
This will aid in demonstrating to teachers the effectiveness and utility of instructional materials for teaching social studies, as well as all other classroom teaching and learning activities. It would assist educational supervisors in providing basic instructional equipment for social studies teaching whenever an inspection is performed.
Instructional materials are objects that the teacher uses to complete the teaching and learning process.
Facilitate: to promote or improve teaching and learning.
Make use of: make use of instructional materials.
Apparatus: these are the basic tools used in learning activities.
Audios are teaching aids that rely on the sense of hearing.
Audio visual materials are instructional materials that can be used to aid teaching and learning by using both the sight and hearing senses at the same time.
These are instructional materials that are visually appealing.
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THE ROLE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL IN SOCIAL STUDY TEACHING