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Chapter one

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Motivation is an often used word in any business, and it will be examined in terms of the connection between management and personnel. Management is primarily concerned with planning, organising, directing, coordinating, budgeting, and control (Drunker, 1975 and 1978).

All of these tasks are aimed at achieving the greatest possible results. Similarly, management cannot fulfil its primary goal in an environment of disorder, hostility, and lack of enthusiasm (Humble, 1969; Akpala, 1991). Motivation is simply defined as encouragement given in cash or in kind.

Management cannot work in isolation from employees because people are human beings, not tools that are used recklessly. In a changing economic landscape, employees have gone beyond simply being employees and have taken an active interest in the management of organisational issues that affect them.

The urge to satisfy human desires has led to the study of motivation on an individual level. Man’s inner condition of dis-equilibrium forces him to search for and select strategies to meet his wants.

In the process of finding and selecting strategies, he develops some abilities that allow him to guide his performance towards his objectives. Employees receive a reward if their performance meets the employer’s expectations. Employees will be punished on the century, thus incentive is a worry for both employers and employees.

Managers in businesses have recently expressed concern about the fall in worker productivity. The ever-increasing external influences of national and international rivalry, as well as economic, social, technical, and political events, have driven managers to develop and achieve higher levels of organisational efficiency and effectiveness.

Keeping in mind the never-ending changes in organisations, managers who are leading the race to achieve the organization’s goals encourage employees to continue the race by developing ways to stimulate employees, ways to maintain the effectiveness of the workforce, and ways to improve their skills.

Motivating employees drives the functions of managers in any company to develop policies; many managers examine employee motivation in order to get the most out of them. Motivation is the key to any organisation’s high production, profitability, and viability, and it must not be tampered with.

Furthermore, there is a growing recognition that classic incentive models do not account for the variety of conduct observed in organisational settings. While research and theory development in the areas of goal setting, reward systems, leadership, and job design have enhanced our understanding of organisational behaviour, the majority of this work is based on the assumption that individuals act in ways that maximise the value of trade with companies.

Furthermore, some researchers have highlighted the role of dispositions and volitional processes as motivational models (Kanfer, 1990), while others argue that we have a variety of motivation theories that lack a unifying theme and are not well supported by research (Locke and Henne, 1986).

In order to address these challenges, some scholars have turned to self theory as an alternative explanation for organisational behaviour. Specifically, social identity theory (Stryker, 1980, 1986; Teyfel & Tuner, 1985).

Self-presentation theory (Beach & Mitchell, 1990). Gergen, 1968, Schlenker, 1985) and self-efficiency theory (Bendura 1982, 1986) are fundamentally flawed in their understanding of the self.

In this research effort, I present a unified model of motivation based on self-concept theories proposed in the sociological and psychological literature. I will begin by discussing several traditional theories of motivation, focusing on their limitations.

Then I’ll provide a complete model that proposes the self-concept as the fundamental force that drives, guides, and sustains conduct in a wide range of situations.

I will also examine how the self-concept influences organisational behaviour and propose a typology of motivational sources that can be used to create a unifying framework based on the self concept. I’ll end with management implications.

1.2 History of Ifako-Ijaye.

On October 1st, 1996, the then-Head of State, late General Sani Abacha, established Ifako-Ijaye Local Government, along with 183 others. It was formed out of Agege Local Government and has its headquarters at Ifako.

According to the 2006 census, it is home to around 380,000 inhabitants, with Yorubas constituting the majority. The literacy rate in the local government area is approximately 75%, as the majority of the residents are migrants from other parts of metropolitan Lagos and the country in general.

Ifako-Ijaye Local government is delimited in the west by Alimoso, east by Ikeja, south by Agege, and north by Ifo and Adolota (Ogun state) local governments.

1.3 Statement of Problem

In general, incentive includes both monetary and in-kind rewards. It is not a mere promise, but a display of reality. The socioeconomic environment influences the need to encourage personnel.

Employees are primarily concerned with fundamental requirements such as food, shelter, clothes, and safety, as well as the ultimate demands of self-esteem and actualization.

These essential necessities are met through monetary and/or nonmonetary means. Employees’ actual earnings must be increased in order for them to effectively demand goods and services in the current economic climate. The lack of motivation might lead to a decrease in production.

Previously, it was stated that management incompetence was affected by the assumption that personnel were unwilling or unable to perform well unless coerced or enticed (McFarland, 1976).

Nowadays, it is believed that employees are particularly eager to do their jobs properly, especially when they are given a consistent high level of motivation.

In general, the needs system that influences employee conduct in any organisation can be divided into two categories: maintenance and motivational needs.

1.4 Goal of the Study

Motivation is beneficial to both businesses and employees. As a result, studying this topic will constantly bring to mind the following points, which are listed below:

1. Inform managers that promoting employee motivation is a process, not a task.

2. To encourage managers to support employee motivation through the use of organisational systems.

3. To emphasise the importance and seriousness with which management at all levels should approach the issue of employee motivation.

4. To help managers understand that inspiring staff begins with motivating themselves.

5. Improve the flow of communication between superior and subordinate staff.

6. Ensure timely fulfilment of organisational goals.

7. Inform the manager that higher job happiness leads to increased job performance.

8. Develop interpersonal relationships among workers.

9. To achieve corporate goals while also meeting individual employee ambitions.

10. To help managers recognise that their motivations are the same as those of their employees.

11. To increase productivity in manufacturing businesses.

12. To demonstrate how employee performance contributes to organisational results.

13. Improve the organisation’s corporate image.

14. To get managers to listen to the problems of their employees, who are the backbone of the company.

15. To familiarise managers at all levels with the critical challenges of motivation.

16. Confirm to the management that money is not the main drive.

17. Encourage employees to engage in organisational decision-making while also enriching their careers.

18. To simplify managers’ workloads.

19. To encourage managers to establish a critical link between organisational aims and employee requirements.

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