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Chapter one


1.1 Background for the Study

The quote “I am satisfied with my job” is an outstanding statement because it addresses motivation and job satisfaction. This implies that motivation and job satisfaction are extremely important in any organisational context.

Long before current psychologists got interested in motivation, philosophers devised sophisticated theories about what causes animals and people to move.

Plato, for example, was already familiar with the pleasure/pain account of human drives in his early writings and inclined to ascribe those principles to bodily objects that interfere with a person’s contemplation of the good and acts of the rational mind (Hunter, 2007).

Plato later changed his mind and acknowledged that some pleasures, such as aesthetic ecstasy, can be considered beneficial. He believed that humans had a stream of ardent desire that can be channelled towards the pursuit of physical pleasure, the state of honour, or the attainment of philosophical knowledge and virtues.

Thus, like several contemporary motivational ideologies, drive can inspire humans for either temporary pleasure or greater forms of pleasure or goals. The above demonstrates that workers’ high productivity is mostly due to their emotional instincts, wants, impulses, and incentives.

However, worker job happiness, which has a direct impact on productivity, is based on the effective and efficient harnessing of both the innate and external capabilities of the human environment through motivation (Linsey, 1958).

In pre-independence Nigeria, for example, management was primarily concerned with activities such as manufacturing and marketing. Human resource management was traditionally viewed as part of general management or administration, and was typically delegated entirely to a low-level executive known as a personnel assistant while management focused on more vital and pressing matters.

For many years, management was more concerned with technical values than with human values or employee wellbeing. To use Strauss and Sayles’ (1960) words, workers were viewed as little more than machines, and they were deemed less worthy of care because machines were more expensive to replace.

As a result, most companies’ primary concern during this period was to maintain the capability of their technical resources. No consideration was given to the welfare or development of human organisations.

The failure of the people department to emerge at a time when other functional areas like as finance, accounting, manufacturing, and marketing received more attention can be linked to senior management’s appraisal of what personnel as a unit had to contribute.

There was no practical or acceptable benchmark for assessing people management’s contributions as a corporate unit. The contribution of, say, the production department could be measured in terms of annual manufacturing output.

The marketing department’s contribution can be measured in terms of annual Naira sales volume. Corporate profitability, as demonstrated on the end-of-year balance sheet, can be directly attributed to production and sales efforts.

On the other hand, the people or human management unit had little physical to demonstrate, and because its contributions were mostly indirect and intangible, it was vulnerable to the narrow perspective of industrial executives at the time.

As Drucker (1961) put it, “the problem with personnel administrators is their inability to demonstrate that they are contributing to their enterprise.”

A number of global issues have had a significant impact on the development and practice of human management in Nigeria. The introduction of Europeans, the scientific management movement

the Hawthorne studies of 1933, the rise of organised labour unions, labour legislations, the development of Nigerian universities, and the surge in behavioural research all laid the groundwork for the growth and development of personnel management and human relations.

Human relations are the comprehensive body of knowledge that describes how employees and management collaborate to accomplish tasks. This is a common term used to describe how management interacts with its staff.

According to Hack Halloran (1978), human relations are “all the interactions that occur among people”. Whether there be conflicts or cooperative behaviours, the study of human relations in business and industry is the study of how people may work effectively in groups to achieve both organisational goals and employees’ personal needs.

Human relations, on the other hand, attempt to strengthen people-organization relationships so that individuals are motivated to create teamwork in order to effectively meet their needs and achieve organisational goals.

1.2 Statement of Problem

It is not an understatement to say that even when workers’ salaries are increased, bonuses are paid, and other allowances and entitlements are provided, their productivity remains low, raising the question of why such productivity is at or below what is expected. Management may get concerned about the organization’s output being relatively low in comparison to its inputs.

This issue prompted this study to determine the extent to which incentives can influence employee productivity levels. Other issues could include workers’ bad attitudes towards their jobs, frequent industrial strikes, and industrial accidents.

However, many other factors, such as the work environment, working hours, and so on, contribute to a drop in worker performance.

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