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Chapter one


1.1 Background for the Study

Organisational culture is a fascinating research field in organisational behaviour. It encompasses topics that will have a significant impact on the lives of employees in an organisation due to the diversity of norms, values, and ways of living (Mansor & Tayib, 2010).

Organisational culture is defined as a complex combination of values, beliefs, assumptions, and symbols that govern how an organisation conducts its operations (Barney, 1986).

Organisational culture is a force that engages individuals in the organisation and has a strong and widespread influence on all aspects of the organisation (Saeedi, 2010).

Organisational culture pervades all parts of the organisation and can be viewed as a driving force in the dynamic and progressive movement of organisations (Zarei 1995). According to Robbins (2006), organisational culture is a structure that members follow to distinguish the organisation from others.

Tichy (1982) argued that organisational culture is the “normative glue that holds an organisation together.”Organisational culture is expressed through members’ thoughts, intentions, actions, and interpretations (Hallett, 2003).

It is also referred to as the social glue that brings people together and helps them feel a part of the organization’s experience. This social glue is becoming increasingly crucial for attracting new employees and retaining top performance (Ojo, 2010).

Job satisfaction refers to employees’ sentiments and ideas regarding their jobs and work environments. It is all about meeting one’s demands at work (Togia, Koustelios, & Tsigilis, 2004).

Robbins and Judge (2008) define job satisfaction as a favourable feeling about one’s job; someone with high job satisfaction has a positive attitude towards their job. According to Luthans (2006), job satisfaction is a pleasurable emotional feeling or positive emotions that result from work valuation or experience

whereas Nasaradin (2001) defines job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state that results from an appraisal of one’s job or job experience.

Business organisations in competitive environments such as Nigeria face significant obstacles such as the rapid pace of technological change, an acute shortage of trained labour, and the obsolescence of products and services, all of which necessitate the re-orientation of existing personnel in order to survive and compete.

Cutthroat competition and a range of issues in the post-liberalization, privatisation, and globalisation (LPG) era have resulted in significant changes in human resource (HR) practices.

Industrial entities are realising the importance of being proactive rather than reactive (Narang & Singh, 2010). Thus, a highly cultured organisation is required for organisations to have satisfied employees and meet their predetermined goals.

Many scholars and practitioners say that an organization’s effectiveness is determined by the extent to which its positive and strong values are widely shared (Ouchi, 1981; Pascale & Athos, 1981; Deal & Kennedy, 1982; Peters & Waterman, 1982;

Denison, 1990; Kotter & Heskett, 1992). When an organization’s culture and values align with its employees’ intended beliefs and values, its performance should improve significantly (Boxx, Odom, & Dunn, 1991).

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

Organisational culture is considered as a building block in organisational architecture, a sub-system that is clearly defined from other elements of the organisation and contains employee conventions, values, beliefs, and behavioural styles. Organisational culture should attempt to increase employee commitment, which will improve organisational performance (Thompson, 2002).

However, there are certain clear instances where difficulties could occur. They include management’s failure to consider organisational culture as a major organisational design

deliberately integrating specific cultures that will withstand the test of time, documenting organisational culture as a business policy guide, and ensuring the implementation of positive cultures that will promote the company’s goodwill.

When tackling falling job unhappiness in the workplace, organisational culture is an important issue to consider. It would appear that if people are satisfied with their jobs, their happiness will be reflected in the quality of their work, and they may receive positive feedback from their clients.

When employees are dissatisfied with their jobs, the organisation pays a high price in terms of labour turnover, grievances and conflicts, work slowdown, and redundancies.

A culture of impunity, irresponsibility, laziness, low ethical standards and behaviour, a lack of integrity, absenteeism and tardiness, stealing, dishonesty, cheating, and other negative indicators of organisational culture can have a negative impact on an employee’s enjoyment of his job.

Organisational culture serves as social glue, binding people together and making them feel like they are a part of the organisation, bringing out the best in them in terms of efficiency and effectiveness in attaining organisational goals (Fakhar, 2005).

Managers should investigate their employees’ levels of satisfaction with the organisational culture that the organisation promotes and maintains.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary goal of the study is to look into the impact of organisational culture on work satisfaction. Specific aims are to:

1. Describe the socioeconomic interests of respondents.

2. Determine the culture of the organisation.

3. Evaluate the impact of organisational culture on employee job satisfaction at FANMILK.

4. Determine the impact of organisational culture on employee job satisfaction.

1.4 Relevant Research Questions.

The research questions for the study are:

1. What impact does organisational culture have on employee job satisfaction at FANMILK?

2. What are the challenges of organisational culture for employee work satisfaction?

1.5 Research Hypotheses.

The study has the following research hypotheses:

H01: Organisational culture has no effect on employee job satisfaction at FANMILK.

H02: Organisational culture does not have an impact on employee job satisfaction.

1.6 Relevancy and Significance of the Study

Organisational culture is a prominent and important aspect of organisational conduct. Weak organisational cultures could constitute a serious threat to modern organisations. As a result, this study is extremely noteworthy.

This study will demonstrate the necessity for company managers to place a greater emphasis on the organization’s values, norms, attitude, regulations, and rituals in order to increase employee satisfaction.

This study contributes to the overall body of knowledge about organisational culture and work satisfaction. The study’s conclusions are useful for company managers, organisational behaviourists, human resource practitioners, management scholars, and future researchers.

The study’s findings will be valuable to both policymakers and the general public.

1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study.

The study focuses on how organisational culture influences job happiness. The researcher seeks to see if implementing a strong organisational culture has an impact on job happiness.

Fanmilk Plc acts as a reference and focal point for the investigation. The analysis is limited to the food and beverage sub-sector, particularly Fanmilk Plc, and makes no generalisations to other areas of the economy.

1.8 Definition of Terms.

Behaviour refers to how an individual interacts or responds to an object, person, or environment.

Beliefs are beliefs or convictions, as well as a state of mind that accepts a claim to be true, actual, or valid.

Culture refers to the way people behave within a society or organisation.

Ethics is a code of conduct that directs an individual’s interactions with others. It focuses on what is right and wrong.

Job satisfaction is a pleasurable emotional feeling or positive emotions resulting from work value or experience.

Norms are group-held views about how members should behave in a specific environment; they govern the behaviour of a group of people.

Organisational behaviour refers to the study of what individuals behave in an organisation and how it impacts the organization’s performance.

Organisation is a dynamic process and managerial action that brings people together to pursue common goals.

Organisational culture refers to an organization’s collective beliefs, values, and processes.

Roles are a collection of related behaviours, rights, obligations, beliefs, and conventions as seen by people in a social environment.

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