LEADERSHIP AND INTERAGENCY RIVALRY: ITS IMPACT ON THE BOKO-HARAM INSURGENCY
This research examined the state of leadership and interagency rivalry between the Law enforcement agencies and its impact in the fight against Boko Haram Insurgency. The rationale for the study is borne out of the fact that Interagency collaboration is often perceived as a panacea for dealing with many complex social problems. But there still exists fogginess about nature, triggers, and what determines results of interagency collaboration.
Hence, this study seeks to bridge this gap by bringing to limelight some of the features of inter-agency collaboration between the Nigerian Police and the Nigerian Military. The mutual aid and the group conflict theories were used to provide a theoretical framework for this study… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
According to UNICEF (2015), some 800,000 children have been forced to flee their homes due to the conflict in north-eastern Nigeria between Boko Haram, military forces, and civilian self-defense groups. In this direction, Sidi (2015) believes that there are currently 981,416 displaced people in the country in December 2019. Of this number, 915,329 people have been displaced due to rebellion and insecurity in the northeast, while 66,087 people have been displaced due to natural disasters.
The consequences that accompanied the rebellion of Boko Haram in Yobe state have had a high cost in human life, career opportunities, and infrastructures such as hospitals, roads, schools, houses, and agricultural land, which has resulted in many internally displaced persons, Persons, and refugees (Yins 2017).
Similarly, UNICEF (2015) reported that children are the most affected, vulnerable, and dependent on parents and communities for their care and nutrition and that attacks on their communities make them more vulnerable to diseases, malnutrition, and denial of education, among other things. According to the above, David (2015)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Globally, security experts and political scientists have long been concerned about the tension between institutional fragmentation and policy coordination in and among security agencies of many countries. This situation translates essentially to the challenges of inter-agency coordination.
To be precise much of these challenges stems from lack of inter-agency collaboration. Related literature is therefore rife with examples of agencies competing with each other asserting their independence, while collaboration is relatively rarely… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The primary aim of this study is to examine the areas of leadership and inter-agency rivalry between the Law enforcement agencies in the fight against Boko Haram Insurgency and how it has translated to inter-agency collaboration in counter-insurgency… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Boko Haram first appeared in the consciousness of most Westerners in April 2009 (Bajie 2012). But the group been a growing force in Nigeria for more than a decade and has deep roots in the social development of the country which dates back even further. Its rise is not an accident and signals the emergence of a dangerous and militant religious movement that threatens the survival of Nigeria as a nation-state.
Its founder, Mohammed Yusuf, was a dedicated fundamentalist whose thinking was heavily influenced by Wahhabi theology. They wanted to turn Nigeria into a truly Islamic state by imposing Islamic law across the country, including taxation in the Christian south.”
In the beginning, Boko Haram was radical, but not yet violent. This changed in 2009 when members of Boko Haram decided that they would refuse to obey all the things required by a law that requires motorcyclists to wear helmets stating that they were somehow not Islamic… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Figure 2.1 Map of Nigeria showing the Geographical Distribution of Boko-Haram Attacks
Source: Jaguda (2014), Map Showing Boko-haram attacks and Casualties Since 2009, Accessed from http://jaguda.com/social–issues/map–showing–boko–haram–attacks–casualties–since–2009/ on the 15 January 2018
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In Rwanda, according to Lemarchard (1990), the conflict which was characterized by claims of political supremacy between Hutu and Tutsi claimed over 800, 000 lives in 1972. This led to the mass movement of displaced persons to Tanzania. In the host communities, this resulted in environmental degradation, diminishing food security, depreciation of the infrastructure, and pressure on the social and health sectors of the host country.
This also involved social and economic adjustment on the part of the IDPs (Adisa 1996). Adisa further maintained that the adjustment took the form of acceptance of food provided and not food wanted and restriction of movement… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
- Counter Insurgency
Counter-insurgency, like other concepts in the Social Sciences, is very difficult to conceptualize. This is as a result of many related views associated with the term. Moore captures it this way:
“As with insurgency, the term counter-insurgency suffers from imprecision and confusion. It has, in the past several years, been used interchangeably with stability operations, foreign internal defense, counter-guerrilla operations, and, most recently, countering irregular threats. In addition, it has been included as a subcomponent of small wars, unconventional warfare, irregular warfare, asymmetric warfare, low-intensity conflict, and military operations other than warfare.” (2002, p. 13)
It is imperative to pinpoint the fact that inter-agency rivalry and collaboration reflect intergroup relations. Hence, any attempt at understanding inter-agency rivalry should not neglect that of intergroup relations.
It is base on this premise that a theoretical framework that will enhance our understanding of both inter-agency rivalry and collaboration is of utmost importance. This study will lay emphasis on two basic theories… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
- Mutual Aid Theory
The mutual aid theory emphasizes that co-operation and consensus are the major themes in intergroup relations. This theory upholds the view that even in the all-important question of the struggle for the basic things in life; human beings cooperate not just for the sake of the social community, but indeed out of necessity.
Otite (2006) noted that the fundamental need of man is the provision of material goods, which itself compels (by implication) cooperation with others, in production and consumption relationship, involving competition for access to scarce resources… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
- Group Conflict Theory
The group conflict theory presents human beings as fundamentally group-involved beings. According to this theory, groups are formed in human communities based on a shared interest. This shared interest can best be furthered through collective action (Vold, 1986). New groups are formed as new interests arise, while existing ones may get weakened and fizzle out if they no longer serve their usual purposes. Groups when formed become effective action units through the direction and coordination of the activities of members by their leaders… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Bodunde (2014) noted that despite the proliferation of security outfits in Nigeria, such as Nigeria Police, the Nigeria Security, and Civil Defence Corps, Nigerian Prisons Services, Nigeria Immigration Services, Federal Road Safety Corps, Nigeria Fire Services, National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies, State Peace Corps in many states of the Federation and numerous registered private security outfits like Nigeria Peace Corps, Vigilante Group of Nigeria among others. It is becoming more evident that Nigeria’s security outfits had not to be positioned to tackle the insecurity in Nigeria.
Similarly, Alemika, (2003) & Omoigui, (2006), noted that Instead of the public security operatives whose primary duties are to protect lives and property of the law-abiding citizens and secure territorial borders to develop professional synergy… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
This chapter is concerned with the methods and processes used in collecting and analyzing the data for the study. This study focused on leadership and Inter-Agency Collaboration Between the Law enforcement agencies in the fight against Boko Haram Insurgency. Just like every other research, data for this research was systematically gathered and analyzed. Hence, this chapter outlines the methods and procedures used in carrying out this study.
The research design refers to the total plan of a given study. It outlines how the study would be executed with minimum complications. In other words, the research design is to scientific research what a building plan is to building construction. It maps out the plan, structure, and strategy of scientific investigation.
This helps to ensure that research questions are answered easily and accurately, that research objectives are met in an acceptable manner, and that hypotheses are validly and accurately tested. It also literally provides a road map for the researcher keen to answer his/her research questions as validly, accurately, objectively, and economically as possible. (Adigun & Isma’il: 2006)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
In this chapter, efforts are made to present data on the nature and role of leadership in interagency collaboration among Nigerian law enforcement agencies and their collaborative impacts on counter-insurgency operations. Discussion and analysis are organized along with the three objectives of the study.
The fight against Boko Haram started as a police action that saw the arrest and killing of many Boko Haram members including the leader, Mohammed Yusuf, who died in police custody in 2009 (Mahmoud 2018).
The infamous clash between Yusuf’s followers and the Nigerian police gave way to a military-led crackdown in which over 800 of Yusuf’s followers and about two dozen Nigerian security officers were killed. The military involvement was ruthless… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The soft approach to counter-terrorism developed a CVE program that is vertical and involves the three tiers of government – federal, state, and local. The program is also horizontal, involving civil societies, academics, traditional, religious, and community leaders.
The NACTEST program utilizes existing structures within and outside the government to deliver targeted programs and activities that further the overall objective of stemming the tide of radicalism. The soft approach programs provide the country with a framework that identifies the roles and responsibilities of every segment of the society… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Table 4.1: Gaps in Nigeria’s National Counter-Terrorism Strategy
|Serial||Observed Gaps||Implications of Gap|
|1||The Terrorist Acts (2011 & 2013) lack a national definition of terrorism.||It poses a challenge to policy implementation as terrorist acts could be subjected to varying interpretations.|
|2||Placed its driving organ, the Counter-Terrorism Center (CTC), under the Office of the National Security Adviser (ONSA).||This could inhibit the effective implementation of the strategy because ONSA does not statutorily have executive functions but advisory roles (as an adviser to the president).|
|3||Tends to lay sole emphasis on the Boko Haram sect.||Its provisions/implementation may not readily apply to other categories of terrorism or terrorism-related threats that could arise.|
|4||The government’s disposition to negotiate with terrorists not stated.||Raises doubts and suspicion on policy trust of government.|
|5||Silent on the protection of Nigeria’s interests abroad and on responses to state-sponsored terrorism.||Necessary contingency plans may not be developed in this regard.|
|6||Discrepancies and lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities assigned to the ministries, departments, and agencies (MDAs) for implementation.||Erodes the command directive or authority NACTEST ought to command as a policy instrument.|
|7||No designated lead ministry or agency.||Makes the coordination of MDAs involved in counter-terrorism difficult.|
|8||Ambiguity on the government’s overall strategic approach.||It could result in a disconnect between policymakers and implementation agencies/the public.|
Source: Eji, E. (2016). Rethinking Nigeria’s counter-terrorism strategy. The International Journal of Intelligence, Security, and Public Affairs 18(3), 198-220.
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This study examined the state of leadership and interagency rivalry the impact on counter-insurgency operations in northeast Nigeria. The focus was on national law enforcement agencies as specified in the Terrorism Act of 2011 as amended in 2013.
Findings reveal that interagency collaboration systematically improved with the discovery of the deficiency of the conventional approaches initially employed by frontline security agencies to suppress and kill the insurgency, and as activities of the sect necessitated the involvement of other security agencies aside from the frontline security agencies of the police, army, and DSS… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Opinions are divided amongst analysts over the motivating force behind the disturbing interagency feud in Nigeria. As a result, there is no consensus about the factors that provide the luxuriance for inter-security agency wrangle in Nigeria.
The prevalent view, however, is that it stems from a multiplicity of sources that aggregate to a complex dimension of no love lost amongst the security agencies. The escalating incidences of clashes amongst these security agencies in Nigeria pose the complex question of… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
All said and done, for inter-agency coordination to be sustainable, the following recommendations should be put in perspective;
- For inter-agency coordination can only be effective in an environment where each agency’s responsibilities are clarified, and modalities for the sharing of information are provided and the operational guidelines that would ensure the realization of the stated objectives are clearly defined… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
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