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Pages: 51
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The origin of Islam as a Political Movement is traced back to have started during the life and times of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and his successors in 622 AD. To further struggle for political power, it can also be dated back to this time when the Prophet and his Companions migrated from Makka to Medinah to establish political base (state) in accordance with the divine will. It was in recognition of his prophet hood, that he was invited to rule the city of Medinah. Subsequently, with the establishment of the Umayyad Dynasty; the territory of Islam got expanded through Jihads. Although before that time, there were constant clashes and conflicts between the local Arab tribes of Aus and Khazraj in Medians. However, after the arrival of Prophet Muhammad and his followers to Medinah, a charter was immediately drafted between the Muslims, and the non Muslims. The believed was that it was this document that made Prophet Muhammad the ruler, and also recognized him as the Prophet of Allah. The laws were based on the revelations of the Quran and his actions (Sunnah) are considered by the Muslims to be Sharia or Islamic law, which Islamic Movements seek to establish today. However, at that time, there were many non Arabs whom were either converted to Islam or ruled under Islamic government and traditions. As a result, their pre-Islamic negative values, customs and traditions and other sophisticated kinds of culture, life, and beliefs affected the Muslims. This was as a result of social integration, inter-marriages and the practice of concubine and which became more prominent and dominant features in the social life of the Muslims. Even though, the contemporary Movements are a continuation of the aspiration of Muslims for an ideal order, but the current Islamic Movements is much wider than was the case in the past. Thus the whole socio-political lives of the Muslims were greatly affected by the foreign influence. Others include the Arab culture based on pre-Islamic (jahiliyah period), Greek and Persians civilization, Indian culture and above all use of Arabic as official language. These and many more were some of the factors influenced or enhanced the evolution and development of Islamic movements across the world. Today, most of these Movements are being led by the elites of the religion. Among which include: Tablighi Jam ‘at faith Movement in India, Jam'at Islamic Movement in Pakistan, Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Islamic in Iran, Mahdi Movements in Sudan, Sokoto Jihad of UsmanDanfodio etc. Similarly, Egypt which has a long standing tradition religious scholarship but the contemporary and the scholarlistic approaches to religion are being criticize by the Islamist group that seek to return the country to what they believed are the original practices of Islam. They emphases for the strict adherence to the conservative mood dresses as well as the need for a comprehensive Islamic law to address the contemporary social and economic problems. Consequently, the group (Islam Brotherhood) had challenged the legitimacy of the government as concluded by[1] in a context which the government no longer provides the required services as well as job security that were central to its social contract with the people.

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