DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF 2.5 KVA VOLTAGE STABILIZER
This project is titled the design and construction of a 2.5kva AC Automatic Voltage Stabilizer. It is designed to meet up with the AC voltage safety, stability and accuracy demand in industries and in homes. Voltage stabilizers are useful in devices such as computer Power supplies, alternators and central power station generator plants, voltage regulators control the output of the plant. In an electric power distribution system, voltage regulators may be installed at a substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how much power is drawn from the line. An AC Automatic voltagestabilizer is designed to automatically maintain a constant AC voltage level. An AC Voltage Stabilizer may be a simple “feed-forward” design or may include negative feedback control loops. It makes use an electromechanical mechanism, and other electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC voltages.
This project is designed to stabilize an AC input voltage of 160-250V to give an AC output voltage of 240V at 50Hz automatically. The automatic feature can be achieved by the electronics devices used such voltage comparator IC, electro-magnetic device (relay), auto- transformer and other electronics devices. In this project, an automatic ac voltage stabilizer was designed to control and stabilize an AC input voltage of 160-250V to produce an output of 240V all at 50Hz.
TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONBACKGROUND OF THE PROJECTAIM/OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECTSIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECTAPPLICATION OF THE PROJECTLIMITATION OF THE PROJECTSCOPE OF THE PROJECTPROJECT ORGANISATIONCHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 HISTORITICAL BACKGROUND OF VOLTAGE STABILIZER
2.2 REVIEW OF AC VOLTAGE STABILIZERS
2.3 CONSTANT-VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER
2.4 REVIEW OF AN AUTOTRANSFORMER AND ITS OPERATION
3.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
3.3 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
3.4 SYSTEM OPERATION
3.5 COMPONENTS LIST
3.6 VOLTAGE STABILIZER CONTROLLER SECTION
3.7 THE BUCK-BOOST PRINCIPLE
3.8 PULSES-DRIVE CIRCUIT AND THE TRANSFORMER
3.9 DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS USED
CHAPTER FOURRESULT ANALYSIS
Automatic AC voltage stabilizer is a wonderful invention of science, which is an electric device designed to regulate a constant voltage in a settable level. The main working of a stabilizer depends upon the laws of electromechanical physics. It is consist of many active and passive electrical components like adopters, capacitors, diodes and thermostats.
There are many functions of an automatic voltage regulator. AVR or automatic voltage stabilizer can be used with lot of electric appliances for various reasons. The basic functions of the automatic voltage regulators are:
First and foremost, it is used as a rectifier and as a potential divider. Rectifier is also an electric device used to convert the alternate current (A.C) to direct current (D.C) for further electric processing. Most of the electric appliances require a direct current for their working and can’t work on alternate current. Regarding potential dividers, they are electric devices used for the break out of input voltage to bring it to a desired output voltage as per the requirements. Thus while using an automatic voltage regulator we can make use of a rectifier and a potential divider at the same time. Means you can save money because you will have to buy a single automatic voltage regulator instead of purchasing a potential divider and a rectifier for your electric appliances.
There are many appliances in our homes which need stable electric power for their running and there might be some damage to the whole electric appliance if there comes any variation in the input current and voltage. Sometimes this may be fatal also but electricity is a very merciless killer. To avoid any mishap to the electric appliances and to us also, which may arise due to any variation in the voltage or current supply, a voltage stabilizer is essential to be used a complement to other electric devices.
AC Automatic voltage stabilizer can also be used in amplifiers. Amplifiers are other electric devices that compare the sensing voltages to the reference voltages and help to amplify the effect. You might have seen amplifiers attached to your home sound systems which boost up the sound effects. The actual sound quantity will be lower but if the same input is given to an amplifier, the resultant sound quality and quantity just increases to multiples of the input waves. The basic running procedure in them is the difference of provided voltages. AC Automatic voltage regulators help in maintaining a desired voltage for the generators within specified limits. Thus automatic voltage regulator is also the important part for our amplifier to work.
The previous analog/servo-types of automatic voltage regulators are now replaced by digital stabilizer. These types of automatic voltage regulators are higher in functionality and performance. They are equipped with self functioning controls and start up functions which make them very useful and easy to handle. Digital converters increase their precision levels. Simplified operating switches make them very precise than human handlings. If any fault occurs in the functioning of the automatic voltage regulators, self diagnostics technique detects the fault in no time. This leads to more security of the function. The maintenance tool helps in maintaining an online monitor. Reduced number of parts and wiring in these typically modern automatic voltage regulators make them more reliable. Automatic changes are easily dealt with the help of full duplex control systems.
The NeoPower voltage regulators have different sizes. There are automatic voltage regulators which are so small that they can be easily placed on a small printed circuit board. They are portable and easy to handle. Some automatic voltage regulators are very gigantic in size. They may cover a volume of a small house sometimes. Thus there is a tremendous variety in the automatic voltage regulators and each has its own specifications. The variation of stabilizer can be judged by the names of automatic voltage regulators. Each name indicates its specific functioning and differences from others and there are more than fifty names to an automatic voltage regulator. Regarding the prices of automatic voltage regulators, it goes the natural way. If you will buy a smarter one, it will cost you more and you will buy an older model with normal functioning, it will cost you less. But keep in mind that whether an AC automatic voltage regulator costs less or high, it becomes irrelevant when it comes to the importance of an stabilizer in our daily lives.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
There are many fundamental different types of stabilizers in use some of which are electron mechanically tap changer, solid state tap changer etc. voltage, stabilizer came into being not by normal design and plain, but as a means of solving electrical “Crisis” situation. This crisis situation does rarely occur in developed countries of the world such as Britain, American, Germany.
Their system of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity is such that a devoid of variation of fluctuation in the supplied voltage. Now, by the definition given by K.G Jackson and R. Feinberg, a voltage stabilizer is a piece device incorporated in a circuit to maintain a constant output voltage from a poorly generated power supply. A voltage stabilizer like any other piece of equipment is a combination of many electrical and like any other piece of equipment is a combination of many electrical and electronic and circuit with the aim of getting the assemble to perform a specified desired task or function.
Therefore a voltage stabilizer consist for two main basic unit
The transformer unitThe control circuit1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The objective of this work is to construct a device whose function is to maintain constant voltage and power line conditioning to the equipment load under a wide variety of conditions, even when the utility input voltage, frequency or system load vary widely. The AVR shall consist of an all copper, multiple tapped, triple shielded isolation transformer and contain independently controlled inverse parallel electronic switches for each of the 7 taps per phase to provide tight voltage regulation. The phase current shall be monitored for zero current recognition to initiate any required tap change. Linear devices shall be used for line synchronization to prevent phase shift errors normally associated with simple CT zero current crossing acquisition. The system is rated 2.5kva.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
The Automatic voltage regulator is a voltage regulator planned to mechanically sustain a constant voltage level. It is very device to maintain a constant voltage level. It can also use electromechanical components. It can be used majorly to regulate one or more DC or AC depending on the design. Therefore, the functions of this equipment are very wide and can be used majorly for various purposes. Electronic voltage regulators can be used majorly for various purposes. It has various functions like it can be used mainly for stabilizing the DC voltages that can be used by the processor and its main parts. In central power station generator plants and automobile alternators, voltage regulators control the output of the plant. In this distribution system, it may be installed at along distribution lines so that all clients recognize steady voltage self-regulating of how much power is drawn from the line. There are many functions of operating the AC depending upon the design. It is very good option to maintain the constant voltage level. Automatic voltage regulator is a superb invention of science, which is an electric device designed to authorize a constant voltage in a settable level. It is very helpful to maintain the preferred voltage for the generators within particular limits. The main working of it depends upon the laws of electromechanical physics. It consists of numerous vigorous and unreceptive electrical parts like thermostats, adopters and diodes. Apart from this, there are many reliable Automotive Suppliers in India that produce many kinds of equipments like generator, regulator and other major parts. They are well known for various kinds of functions and various specifications. They not only produce higher quality products, but also they will provide some additional benefits with the parts of these equipments. Auto Voltage Regulator Generator is the most important part for great amplifier to work. Its types are many, but they are highly in functionality and better performance. They are well equipped with self functioning controls and starts up functions which make them very easy and useful to handle easily and completely. They have different sizes, shapes and colors. There are also automatic regulators which are so small that they can be easily places on a small printed circuit board. They are very easy and portable to handle. They may cover a higher volume of small house sometimes. Therefore, there is a wide variety in the automatic voltage regulator sand each has its own specifications.
1.4 THE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The design and construction of an Automatic Voltage Regulator is the project we are construction. We are working on this machine because we have some idea on how this machine can be constructed and also on how it works. We are also doing this because we want to learn more about it.
As we have mentioned earlier, this device is a protective device that protects our electrical and electronic appliances out of current and voltage fluctuation. This is how it works. When this system is plugged into the socket or supply, it will receive a minimum voltage of 100v and filter the current and voltage thereby brings out suitable voltage output to be used by the devices in it.
So, we are building or constructing this device to reduce risk and damages the fluctuation of current / voltage caused by power fluctuations
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
The system design shall be capable of operating at an input frequency range of -15% to +10% of nominal, without clearing protective devices or causing component failure within the AVR. When generator or utility power is restored, the AVR shall automatically restart. Upon turn on or restart, the output of the AVR shall not exceed the specified output regulation limits.
If the input voltage or frequency exceeds programmable minimum or maximum set points for a programmable time period (factory set for 10 seconds), the AVR shall electronically shut off. When electrical parameters are back within acceptable limits for a programmable time period (factory set for 60 seconds), the AVR shall automatically restart to provide conditioned power to the load. If the input parameters are within acceptable limits, but the output voltage is outside of acceptable programmed limits, the AVR shall electronically shut off and require a manual restart.
The AVR shall be capable of operating at 100% rated load capacity continuously, 200% rated load for 10 seconds, 500% rated load for 1 second and 1000% rated load for 1 cycle. Operating efficiency shall be a minimum of 96%, typical at full load.
Transformer winding shall be continuous copper with electrostatic tripled shielding and K-13 rated for the purpose of handling harmonic currents.
Response Time: The AVR shall respond to any line voltage variation in 1/2 cycle while operating linear or non-linear loads, with a load power factor of 0.60 of unity. Peak detection of the voltage sine wave shall not be permitted to avoid inaccurate tap switching due to input voltage distortion.
Operating Frequency: The AVR shall be capable of operating at +10% to -15% of the nominal frequency, 50Hz or 60Hz.
Rating: this device shall be rated at 2.5kVA.
Access Requirements: The AVR shall have removable panels on the front, rear and sides as required for ease of maintenance and/or repair.
Metering: An input meter is provided to display line voltages
Ventilation: The AVR isolation transformer shall be designed for convection cooling. If fan cooling is required for the solid state electronic switching devices.
1.6 APPLICATIONS OF STABILIZERS
Fluctuation in electricity is one of the major problems that affect their production. Due to high demand of electricity to sustain their operations, it results to low voltage output which can damage equipments. Therefore, these companies need specialized devices to help them protect their equipments from early wear and tear. Voltage regulators are electromechanical constituents that control the regular voltage outputs. During peak consumption of electricity, the sudden flow of power can damage electric or electronic machines. On the other hand, if there is low output of voltage, a machine may fail to function. Servo Voltage Stabilizer provide safe output to guard varieties of equipments including ultra modernized music systems, medical equipments LCD, Home Theater, industrial machines and more. They are designed with special features to protect equipments which include line noise spike protection, primary switching technology, auto reset, and overload cutoff protection. In order to preserve the life of machines, these devices are recommendable in any operation. They assure that machines are working well all the time especially in peak timings. Basically, these equipments are used to control the input voltage fluctuations and at the same time, to maintain an output voltage of +/-0.5% accuracy. They also help lower MDI and in saving power consumption. There is plenty of Servo Voltage Stabilizer Manufacturers India that provides range of stabilizers. They serve range of applications in many industries e.g., Information Technology, Data processing, Chemical and Textile, Air conditioning, medical and more. During power interruptions, generators play a very important role in supplying continuous electricity. These equipments give the residents, workers and industries the peace of mind that they can continue doing their work without breaks. These emergency power system guarantees that there will be normal circuits and they can continue whatever important tasks they are doing. For businesses, power interruptions can lead to lost of sales and profits. With assurance that everything will run well even without electricity, electricity standby power assures full performance of every equipment at all times. Since stabilizers are needed to maintain every electric or electronic device, stabilizer for generator guarantees that they are working at full performance even for a long time. Generators are big investment for any home or business. Therefore, they must be protected too from electrical surges. Generator Voltage Regulators are specially designed to control the voltage output. Regularly, the voltage output must be in the range of 120 to 240 volts. Therefore, these generator stabilizers provide support that equipments will function at their best even in the event of power fluctuations or interruptions.
1.7 PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION
The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:
Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to an automatic voltage stabilizer. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective limitation and problem of an automatic voltage stabilizer were discussed.
Chapter two is on literature review of an automatic voltage stabilizer. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.
Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.
Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.
Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF 2.5 KVA VOLTAGE STABILIZER
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