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This study looks at the impact of reward and punishment on student academic progress in primary school in some chosen primary schools in Edo state’s Oredo local government district. Before beginning the inquiry, the researcher creates research questions. A questionnaire with 20 questions was distributed to the responders. The study’s population consisted of students from various secondary schools in the Oredo local government jurisdiction.

A basic percentage was used to analyse the data. The study’s findings were examined, and it became evident that a high majority of pupils had developed a habit of punishing. The majority picked up the habit of punishment from their classmates, etc.

Helpful comments were made based on the discussion of the results. I am confident that if the relevant authorities implement these recommendations, it will make a big impact in putting an end to the punishment of students in the area.




1.1 Background of The Study

Teachers in secondary schools are regarded to be capable of maintaining class discipline through the application of rewards and punishments. Several psychologists and education specialists have contested the effective use of incentive and punishment in secondary schools.

The study tries to bring together numerous points of view and feelings of others as it progresses in order to present the reader with enough knowledge on which to base their choice after reading this work. Nowadays, secondary schools frequently deal with reward and punishment issues, particularly when they relate to the learning process.

Many teachers and parents are concerned about the need for educational authorities to set boundaries, thus this is a matter of equal interest.

Some professors have recommended in their writings that pupils be given practically unlimited independence in the classroom. The issue must be resolved quickly and peacefully because the resolution will provide valuable advice and direction to new teachers and parents concerned about their children’s growth.

However, rather than claiming to have all the answers to the challenges regarding classroom incentives and punishments, this research offers a few possibilities that will be incredibly beneficial to both parents and the general public in terms of education.


According to Udoh (2009), reward and punishment have apparently sparked discussions among educational psychologists. There is ongoing debate about the ideal teaching technique for changing undesirable behaviour, which incorporates both incentive and punishment. According to Durojaiye (2002), the two methods of reward and punishment should be used correctly during the teaching and learning process to increase learning.

While some advocate for employing both to help instructors govern their students’ behaviour, others may argue that using both rewards and punishment is the only method to achieve the necessary behavioural change. However, scholars generally agree that the problem lies with how these approaches are used.

However, according to Boekaerts (2012), the classroom is both the source of brilliance and its last resting place. In other words, regardless of the reality of this argument, society clearly expects certain effects from the students’ classroom experiences.

As a result, a student’s academic achievement is impacted not just by his intellectual ability but also by his eagerness to learn new things. If children are sufficiently driven, their desire to learn may be strong enough to keep them from joining the swelling ranks of school dropouts. Ilegbusi, 2013.

Furthermore, because achieving a student’s goal is regarded as an important goal of education, the element that produces the best learning environment should be regarded as a critical component of educational factor. According to Walker (2008), the variables that define students’ optimal learning environments include punishment and reward; as a result, these aspects and motivational strategies have a substantial impact on students’ performance in any subject.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Discipline is critical to a person’s survival and growth. Children, by definition, make mistakes all the time, and it’s not uncommon to see preschoolers acting in inappropriate ways. Both parents and preschool teachers play a role in ensuring that the various forms of discipline employed in situations of indiscipline are applied effectively.

The emphasis in some selected secondary schools in Edo state’s Oredo local government region is on the study of the effects of reward and punishment on student academic progress. In the research, the author attempts to summarise the numerous works on this issue written by educators and psychologists.

To comprehend the following concerns, it is required to examine the viewpoints of some of these well-known authors, as well as the findings of the research and one’s own personal experience.

To determine whether or not punishment can be used to successfully educate anything.

Is there any other effective incentive and punishment-based teaching techniques?

Whether punishment affects secondary school students’ ability to learn.

Educational goals can be significantly attained if reward and punishment are incorporated.

1.3 Objectives of The Study


The goal of this research is to look into the effects of reward and punishment on the academic performance of students in primary school in the Oredo local government region of Edo state. The following aims led this study:

Determine the impact of rewards on children’s adherence to school regulations.

Determine the impact of punishment on correcting aberrant behaviour in preschoolers.

Determine the effect of incentives on class attendance.

Determine the impact of punishment on school property respect.

1.4 Research Questions

To guide this investigation, the following research questions have been developed.

Is there any influence of punishment on the learning process of pupils in secondary schools?

Is it true that effective learning always occurs in the absence of any sort of punishment?

Do parents and teachers agree that punishment is appropriate?

Does the use of rewards and punishment promote or discourage learning?

Is it true that punishment has a negative impact on learning?

1.5 Significance of The Study


This study is expected to be very relevant and beneficial to students and parents in the Oredo local government region of Edo state. As a result of this study, they were able to comprehend the significance of reward and punishment in secondary schools.

The purpose of this study is to benefit and improve the academic performance of secondary school administrators in the Oredo local government district.

This study will also help determine the effects of incentives and punishments on learning in some selected secondary schools in Edo state’s Oredo local government region.

The study’s findings and recommendations will also assist teachers in understanding the best ways to employ reward and punishment to achieve learning goals in the classroom and during courses. It should be noted, however, that every instructor in a classroom setting must specify the desired objectives of a single session in objective terms.

Teachers must be aware of the motivational technique to be used in order to carry out the stated objectives of the lesson and achieve its ultimate purpose. In this case, the instructor will learn about the use of reward and punishment in teaching and learning from the research. As a result, Cameron (2011) believes that teachers should use incentives to help their students become more motivated to study.


Third, when the findings of this study are implemented, the study will assist students feel motivated to learn. This is because many children’s academic performance will improve if the use of incentive and punishment is oriented towards suitable application. As a result, reward and punishment can both motivate students to study more and reduce bad behaviour.

As a result, Walter (2005) argues that rewards can motivate learners to study more and increase their enthusiasm in learning, whereas punishment can reduce undesirable behaviour. However, awards can stimulate both good and detrimental rivalry among students, which can increase academic performance while decreasing participation. Alkinson, 2007.

According to Shi (2005), in order for students to effectively benefit from the variety of learning scenarios they encounter as students, they must develop and improve their own learning approaches. As a result, employing rewards and incentives may hinder students’ natural motivation to finish activities.

Shi (2005) went on to suggest that, while rewards are useful in educational and other social contexts, they may lead students to compare their own performance to that of their peers if they are not offered correctly.

Fourth, the research will help curriculum developers identify key educational and motivating tactics that should be promoted through the development and implementation of curricula for successful teaching and learning in schools.

Furthermore, it provides essential information regarding reward and punishment, obstacles or challenges experienced throughout the teaching and learning process that should be incorporated into the educational curriculum.

The fact that society is the recipient of educational outcomes does not exclude society from being a beneficiary of this research endeavour. To put it another way, if the desired change in student behaviour is achieved through the efficient application of appropriate and stimulating teaching and learning methods, then society will grow and develop through harmonious living and production, among other things.


1.6 Scope of The Study

The scope of this study is limited to the effects of incentives and sanctions on student performance in some chosen secondary schools in Edo state’s Oredo local government region.

Such research would be a response to the research question stated in the paragraph dealing with the study’s problem. Upon completion, the writer shall make the research findings available to the headmasters of the schools where she conducted the research.

The author will make an effort to tell the communities where she performed her research about the outcomes of her interviews with them. It will be a sort of enlightenment for the investigators because the children are comparable to other children in Edo state because they run the same curriculum under the same brand of teachers, and the findings of the research would be the same for other places in Edo state and, indeed, elsewhere in the final report.


1.7 Limitations

The researcher encountered some difficulties while conducting this study, including time limits, budget constraints, language barriers, and the respondents’ attitudes. However, the researcher was able to handle them just to ensure the study’s success.


1.8 Definition of Terms

A reward is an act of recognising a job well done.

Punishment: the act of correcting a wrongdoing or character flaw.

Discipline: the act of training people to obey rules and regulations and punishing them if they do not control the situation that arises as a result of this training.

Investigation: the act of conducting an official examination of the facts around a situation, crime, etc.

Sufficient: enough for a specific purpose, as much as you need, or provide enough time to get there.


1.9 Organisation of The Study

This research paper is divided into five chapters for easy comprehension. The first chapter is concerned with the introduction, which includes the (overview of the study), historical background, problem statement, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms, and historical background of the study.

The second chapter emphasises the theoretical framework on which the study is based, as well as a survey of related literature. The third chapter discusses the study’s research strategy and methodology. The fourth chapter focuses on data gathering, analysis, and presenting of findings. The study’s summary, conclusion, and suggestions are presented in Chapter 5.

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