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Using UCC as a case study, the effects of Facebook and WhatsApp on academic achievement of UCC students were explored. The study looked at why students use WhatsApp and Facebook, how they use them on campus, the negative effects of WhatsApp and Facebook on academic performance, and the beneficial effects of WhatsApp and Facebook on academic performance.

The study employed a survey research approach and recruited participants at random. A total of 99 responses from registered participants, all of whom are UCC students, were validated. The data reveal that undergraduates use Facebook and WhatsApp for academic purposes, that the platforms enhance learning, and that the good effects exceed the negative effects.

The research also demonstrated that WhatsApp is a superior cooperation medium than Facebook, and that, despite the academic gains, there are detrimental side effects. The use of WhatsApp and Facebook, as well as awareness of academic material, are associated. Undergraduates pointed out that subscribing to the internet is time-consuming and costly; appropriate advise was given.



1.1 Background of The Study

People came on board social media platforms in the current face of globalisation, where technology is on the rise, in their inventive techniques of making the world a global village where people can get connected to family and friends via virtual platforms. Social media can be defined as the various forms of online communication that people use to form networks, form groups, and exchange information, ideas, messages, and other content such as images and videos (Keith, 2019).

Social media can be defined as anything from messaging apps like WhatsApp and Viber to profile-based platforms like Facebook and LinkedIn, video portals like YouTube, and email systems like Gmail. Social media may be traced back to the 1990s, when personal computers were more widely available, opening the path for the development of social media.

Six Degrees and Friendster were the first social networking sites to launch in 1997 and 2002, respectively. Following their success, many social media network platforms were launched, including LinkedIn in December 2002, MySpace in 2003, Facebook in 2004, Twitter in 2006, WhatsApp in 2009, Instagram in 2010, and Snapchat in 2011 (Keith, 2019).Globally, there are around 2.62 billion social media users, with this number expected to exceed 3 billion by 2021 (Keith, 2019).

However, there are 5.60 million active social media users in Ghana, accounting for 19% of the total population; WhatsApp was found to be the most popular social media platform, with 30% of the population using the famous text messaging programme. This was followed by a 28% increase for Facebook, a 15% increase for YouTube, a 15% increase for Facebook Messenger, and a 12% increase for Instagram (Kweku, 2018).

Social media has become an inseparable part of humanity, particularly among the young. Our social connections are being influenced in a number of ways as we adapt to an ever-changing technological environment, thanks to the growing popularity of social networking websites.

The way people connect and communicate online has changed and will continue to change. These users now socialise through the internet, which has shifted us away from traditional face-to-face connection.

The basic function of social media is to offer customers and users with access. They can use the internet to contact with people and form social relationships. They may also post personal information and views on social media, such as everyday occurrences, hypotheses, photographs, videos, and links. Individuals can also promote their professional and personal skills.

Because of the internet’s ability to quickly transmit beneficial information, it has become the fastest expanding method of association. Many businesses have been touched by social media networking, but the most visible impact has been in classrooms and the entire educational system (Alsaif, 2016).

For the sake of this study, social media is defined as students using the internet to communicate via Facebook and WhatsApp – the sharing of ideas, information, photographs, and videos by handlers. According to Ismail and Sandra (2016), students spend more time on social media than on academic endeavours, lowering their GPA.

The goal of this research is to determine the impact of WhatsApp and Facebook on UCC students’ academic achievement. Full-time undergraduate students from the faculties of planning and land management (FPLM), integrated development studies (FIDS), and business and law (SBL) provided responses for the researcher.

1.2 Statement Of the Problem

In this modern technological environment, the internet is perhaps the most crucial location where knowledge can be easily gained, and the increased use of social media by students in tertiary education institutions cannot be disregarded (Konlan & Patience, 2018).

Students have been observed to devote more attention and time to social media than to academics, and they are unable to pass their exams if they do not study (Oshrive, 2015).

Furthermore, Konlan and Patience (2018) contend that social media use contributes to poor academic accomplishment, low self-esteem, and a lack of interest in college-oriented employment. Despite the fact that social media has been highly beneficial, particularly for communication among friends and family members, students are transferring their writing and speaking techniques from social media platforms into examination rooms (Joynews, 2014).

Students’ use of social media has reached epidemic proportions, interfering with their study time, resulting in poor language and spelling when speaking on social media, and diverting their attention away from their academics (Ndaku, 2013).

This raises the question of how WhatsApp and Facebook, as social media platforms, affect tertiary students’ academic performance, given that they are clearly the leading social networking platforms in terms of active social media users, as observed by Kweku(2018) in the background to the study above. As a result, this study is being done to assess the effects of Facebook and WhatsApp on UCC students’ academic performance.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The study’s primary goal is to investigate the effects of Facebook and WhatsApp on academic achievement among UCC students. The Research Objectives are as follows:

To investigate the motivations for students’ use of WhatsApp and Facebook.
To investigate how students on campus utilise WhatsApp and Facebook.
To investigate the harmful effects of WhatsApp and Facebook on academic achievement among students.
To investigate the beneficial effects of WhatsApp and Facebook on student academic achievement.

1.4 Research Questions

What are the students’ motivations for using WhatsApp and Facebook?
On campus, how do students utilise WhatsApp and Facebook?
What are the detrimental consequences of WhatsApp and Facebook on academic performance among students?

What are the good benefits of WhatsApp and Facebook on academic performance among students?

1.5 Importance of the Research

The findings will assist students, lecturers, parents, policymakers, and other academics. The research will help students understand the effects of WhatsApp and Facebook on their academic achievement, allowing them to make the most of them.

It will serve as a guide for parents and professors to utilise when counselling their students. The study adds to the existing body of knowledge on the subject and serves as a resource for stakeholders such as students, lecturers, parents, and other educational researchers.

1.6 Scope of The Study

The primary goal of this research is to investigate the effects of WhatsApp and Facebook on students’ academic performance. The study will take place at UCC. The empirical data for this research work will be collected between March and April.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

The researcher encountered some difficulties while conducting this study, including time limits, budget constraints, language barriers, and the respondents’ attitudes. However, the researcher was able to handle them just to ensure the study’s success.

1.8 Definition of Terminology

Motivation is the process by which individuals are tasked with increasing their activity or performance, either internally or externally.

Academic performance is used in the study to refer to students’ attitudes towards competition for excellence in engaging in classroom activities and doing homework. It was also utilised to increase kids’ interest in learning.

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