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1.1 Background of The Study

The latest breakout of the Coronavirus pandemic widened the global education gap. Although the Coronavirus pandemic is new, it is already having a negative impact on humanity. The COVID-19 outbreak has caused educational disruptions and global health problems that have proven challenging for global health institutions to control.

As of now, no nation or race is immune to the coronavirus pandemic, and the entire world appears to be overrun by the rapid spread and terrible impacts of COVID-19. The coronavirus pandemic has no bounds, and its impact is widespread and rapid. Within a few months of the disease’s emergence, it had significantly altered the world’s habits, with billions of people obliged to stay at home,’ ‘observe self isolations,’ and work and learn from home.

It has restricted people’s freedom to migrate, trade, or interact. COVID-19 not only triggered absolute lockdowns in numerous countries around the world, but it also killed thousands of people, especially women and the elderly.

Worryingly, reports from several continents, including America, Africa, Asia, and Europe, revealed a daily increase in the number of new cases and deaths caused by COVID-19. As of April 2020, the global COVID-19 case count had topped one million, with over 220,000 deaths. It was especially concerning that the United States recorded almost 2000 COVID-19 deaths in a single day, despite the country’s tremendous commitment to fighting the virus.

The number of Coronavirus deaths was on the rise, and there were no obvious answers in sight. The epidemic showed no signs of abating over the world. President Trump of the United States invoked the “Defence Production Act” in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. As a result of the increasing number of new Coronavirus cases in the country, the government declared a national emergency (Priscillia, 2020).

The US administration also worked with Congress to authorise a $2 trillion stimulus package to combat the Coronavirus pandemic and provide some assistance to residents and companies harmed by the outbreak.

Similar efforts were taken in several other nations, notably Germany, where 810 billion US dollars were set aside to combat the pandemic’s impacts, despite the fact that the virus quickly spread to many regions of the world.


The COVID-19 pandemic had a global impact on all elements of human activity, including education, research, sports, entertainment, transportation, worship, social gatherings/interactions, the economy, corporations, and politics. Indeed, the entire world was in turmoil as a result of COVID-19 threats, and the reality of the situation was difficult to face. The education sector remains one of the worst-affected by the Coronavirus pandemic.

Certain items or chemicals utilised in regulating and inhibiting the spread of Covid 19 include:

Mask for the face

Sanitizer for the hands

Hand cuffs

Strong antiseptic

soap that is antibacterial

Gel containing alcohol


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The closures of educational institutions affect not only students, professors, and families, but also have far-reaching economic and societal implications. In reaction to school closures, UNESCO advocated for the adoption of distance learning programmes as well as open educational tools and platforms that schools and teachers can utilise to reach out to students remotely and minimise disruption to education.

According to UNESCO monitoring as of July 7, 2020, around 1,067,590,512 students have been affected by school closures in response to the epidemic, with 110 countries implementing national closures, affecting approximately 61% of the world’s student population.

Several other countries have imposed localised closures, affecting millions more students. Only in Nepal are around 87 lakh pupils from preprimary to postsecondary education levels [ISCED levels 0 to 8] affected by the COVID-19 pandemic closure. While it is difficult to foresee how the epidemic will unfold, the prospect of extended physical distance constraints remains.

According to the United Nations, 166 nations shuttered schools and colleges to stop the spread of the coronavirus, which infected around 1.5 billion children and young people, accounting for 87 percent of the enrolled population.

A considerable portion of the population in Southeast Asia, as in many other developing nations, lacks access to the Internet and electronic devices. Even those who have Internet connection face some infrastructural challenges.

The infrastructure divide can be visible in numerous ways, including the disparity in Internet speeds among locations. People in urban areas frequently have access to substantially quicker Internet than those in less developed places.

According to statistics, there are 821,249 internet subscribers in Nigeria in 2019. According to Worldometer, the country has a population of 29,086,128 as of 2020, and not all pupils have access to high-speed internet. Even those with high bandwidth internet have reported service interruptions or slowdowns due to increased collective usage as more people use the internet to work,

socialise, and entertain themselves during the lockdown. While mobile data packages are speedier, they are also significantly more expensive for students to pay on a regular basis.

Internationally, covid 19 prevention strategies include limiting class size, using a facemask, and using sanitizers. This study will concentrate on class size and Covid 19 prevention methods in public elementary schools in Kaura Ward, Zaria Local Government Area, Kaduna State.


1.3 Objective of The Study

To investigate the impact of class size on Covid 19 prevention in elementary schools.

To investigate the effect of hand sanitising on Covid 19 prevention in primary schools.

To investigate the effectiveness of face masks in preventing Covid 19 in primary schools.

To investigate the impact of hand washing on Covid 19 prevention in primary schools.


1.4 Research questions

What influence does class size have on Covid 19 prevention in primary schools?

What effect does hand sanitising have on Covid 19 prevention in primary schools?

What effect does a face mask have on Covid 19 prevention in primary schools?

What effect does hand washing have on Covid 19 prevention in primary schools?


1.4 Importance of the Research

The COVID-19 virus affects individuals differently. COVID-19 is a respiratory disease, and most infected people may experience mild to moderate symptoms before recovering without the need for medical treatment. People with underlying medical issues, as well as those over the age of 60, are at a higher risk of acquiring severe disease and dying.

The study aims to raise awareness among students in public elementary schools in Kaura Ward, Zaria Local Government Area, Kaduna State, about the usefulness of class room restrictions, face masks, and sanitizers.


1.6 Scope of The Study

The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of class room restrictions, face masks, and sanitizer in preventing Covid19 in public primary schools in Kaura Ward, Zaria Local Government Area, Kaduna State.



The study encountered some difficulties; however, the key limitations of the study are as follows:

Time: Due to other academic obligations, the researcher did not have enough time to complete this work. There was a time constraint in travelling to locations where data and information relevant to the study could be gathered.

Finance: Significant funds are required for data gathering, analysis, and interpretation. The researcher is financially constrained. Due to this limitation, the researcher was forced to choose primary schools in Kaura Ward, Zaria, Kaduna.

Respondent Attitude: Some respondents had a lukewarm attitude towards the study. This is due to the fact that there was no monetary advantage associated to it. Others suppressed material owing to confidentiality concerns.

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