The research work investigated the availability and use of Digital Information Resources by undergraduates of universities in Delta and Edo States. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population comprised ten thousand eight hundred and eighty-two students (10, 882) in four universities in Delta and Edo States in Nigeria. The sample size comprised one thousand and eighty-eight (1,088) respondents, selected through proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Capture sampling was adopted for the administration of the instrument. Three research questions guided the study and two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Observation checklist and questionnaire were used for data collection. The instrument was titled “Availability and use of Digital Information Resources Questionnaire (AUDIRQ).” Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistic and the hypotheses was tested with Z test. The major findings include that some Digital Information Resources (DIRs) were available in the university libraries visited by the researcher are the following: e-conference papers, e-zines, e-newsletters e-reference materials, e-projects, e-journals, e-seminar papers, e- books and e-dissertation. More specifically, Ambrose Alli University Library (AAU) have ten(10) types of DIRs; John Harrison Library in University of Benin (UNIBEN) eight of DIRs are available either through inter- library loan (ILL), or online subscription. Federal University Petroleum Resources Library do not have any of the DIRs because the digital library was just newly established and under structuring; but they are using it as cybercafé for students to search academic information with the Internet facilities. The findings also revealed that students make use of DIRs to a low extent. The constraints encountered by students towards the accessibility of DIRs in the four libraries are epileptic power supply, none availability of online databases, lack of formal training in Internet skills among students, slow bandwidth, network problems and server slowness. Implications of the findings were pointed out and some recommendations were made among which were that the university management of Federal University of Petroleum Resources Library (FUPR) and Delta State University Library (DELSU) should look into the development and growth of the digital library as a matter of urgency through the process of free downloading and subscription of databases online. University management of both federal and state institutions should vote a reasonable amount of fund to enable the library management buy all facilities needed for digital library to work effectively and efficiently.
TABLE OF CONTENT
COVER PAGE I
TITLE PAGE II
APPROVAL PAGE III
TABLE OF CONTENT VI-VIII
LIST OF TABLES IX
LIST OF APPENDICES X
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of Problem 8
Purpose of the Study 9
Significance of the Study 9
Scope of the Study 10
Research Question 10
Research Hypotheses 11
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Conceptual framework 13
Digital Information Resources ( DIRs) 13
Theory of information science that relates to
Digital Information Resources (DIRs) 15
Theoretical Studies 17
Digital Information Resources 17
22 Use of Digital Information Resource (DIRs)
Constraints militating against use of digital information resources 24
Empirical studies 26
Summary of Review of Related Literature 33
CHAPTER THREE: METHOD
Research design 35
Area of the study 35
Population of the Study 36
Sample and Sampling technique 36
Instrument for data collection 37
Validation of the instrument 38
Reliability of the instrument 38
Method of data collection 39
Method of data analysis 39
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
Research question 1 40
Research question 2 42
Research question 3 45
Research Hypothesis 1 47
Research Hypothesis 2 49
Summary of Findings 50
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Discussion of Results 52
Implications of the Study 56
Limitations of the Study 59
Suggestions for Further Research 60
APPENDICES 67- 80
LIST OF TABLES
Availability of DIRs in the four university libraries of
Mean scores of the extent students make use of DIRs
Delta and Edo states used for the study
available in the institutions 43
Mean scores of constraints militating against students
effective use of DIRs in university 45
Z-test Analysis of extent of students' usage of Digital
Information Resources by university ownership 47
6 . Z-test Analysis of students' mean rating of constraints in the use of Digital Information Resources by university
LIST OF APPENDICES
A. Request for validation of questionnaire letter67 B. Letter to the respondents 63C. Questionnaire(Instrument)65 D. Calculation of the sample size 75E. Formula of Cronbach for reliability of the instrument76 F. List of university libraries in Delta and Edo states used
for the study and population of the returned
77 questionnaires (respondents)
G. Results of the Reliability 78H. Photocopies of validationcomments80CERTIFICATION
This is to certify that I am responsible for the work submitted in this thesis. The original work is mine, except as specified in the acknowledgements and references, and that neither the thesis nor the original work contained therein, has been submitted to this university or any other institution for the award of a degree.
———————————- URHIEWHU, LUCKY OGHENETEGA NAU/PG/ 2010206004 F
This research work is dedicated to my best friend Ufeli L. Nkem, Sisters and Brothers.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTIONBackground to the Study
In recent times, universities in Africa have embarked on integration of technology in their operations. This serves as a tool for improvement and development, especially in a situation where attention is drawn to the academic contents and ways of digitizing and preserving them. University libraries are fully involved in this development as they are the heart of the university. This is because University libraries house the intellectual contents of the institutions. This effort to digitize the intellectual property of the institution is what is known as digitization (Adeyinka, Adedeji, Ayen, & Omoba, 2008).
The major function of libraries, irrespective of type, is to provide the right materials (resources in all formats) to meet the information needs of users. A university library aims at serving students and researchers at all levels, hence, librarians must be ready to acquire and make available necessary databases for teaching and research for the university communities (Devi & Singh, 2004). Devi and Singh further stated that information explosion and information technology revolution leading to the emergence of digital information era has made several library resources available for clienteles.
In a digital library, resources are stored and made available in digital forms, and the services of the library are also made available electronically. Rosenberg (2005) noted that these services are made available frequently over the Internet so that users can access electronic materials remotely. This refers to e-services which most libraries are trying to embrace in the digital environment. Rosenberg further stated that as libraries embrace the digital environment,
their most crucial role is not that of providing e-resources, but of establishing services that facilitate access to available information. According to Fabunmi, Paris and Fabunmi (2006), library digitization has become part of the work of librarians, and most libraries are involved in digitization. Libraries in Nigeria universities are not left out in this trend of digitization.
Digital Information Resources(DIRs) connotes those information resources which before now were in print form, but currently found in non- print form ( soft copy) and are accessible through computer machines and other corresponding ICT tools(Obaseki, Umeji & Krubu, 2010). Similarly, Digital Information Resources(DIRs)includes music's, games, stories, articles from magazines, published journals and books, encyclopaedias, pamphlets, cartographic materials and other published resources that are in soft copies. They also often include sound animated graphics, pictures and movies.
The aim of digitizing library materials is for preservation and easy access by students, researchers and other users. In the words of Fabunmi, Paris and Fabunmi (2006:30) stated that:
Digitization improves access to library resources. By digitizing library collections, information will be accessible to all instead of a group of researchers. Digital projects allow users to search for collections rapidly and comprehensively from anywhere at any time. Digitization makes the invisible to be visible. Several users can access the same material the same time without hindrance. It also removes the problem of distance, as users do not have to travel to libraries that possess the hard copies of library materials before they can access and use such materials.
Okwaro (2010) while discussing issues relating to digital libraries and development, draw attention to the key principle of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) which emphasized the common desire and commitment of the world to build a people – centred, inclusive and development-oriented information society. According to him, it would facilitate a situation where everyone can create, access, utilize and share information which is aimed at enabling individuals and communities to achieve their full potential in promoting sustainable development. Therefore, Digital Information Resources(DIRs) of an institution's library has a lot of positive effects. In addition to this, Imo and Igbo (2011) stated that digitalization promotes access to information for the end user such as researchers, lecturers and more especially undergraduates and also enhances the status of the institution engaged in the initiative at the global level. A digital information resource of African origin involves diverse kinds of materials. In studies conducted by Fatoki (2007), the materials considered for digital resources include, published articles, theses, dissertations, conference papers, reports, technical and working papers, photographs, newspapers, government official publications, data/ statistics, artefacts, maps, charts, artistic paintings, historical documents and African documents and manuscripts.
Omekwu (2002: 100) also pointed out that:
Traditional domains of librarians and libraries have always been in the printed page. The strength of services has also been on delivery of library- held information resources to the clientele system. So it is understandable when librarians talk excitingly about the largeness of their collection and the membership of their clientele system. But these two factors – the printed page and their provision to users are already at a crossroad with the challenges which ICT information systems pose to the traditional orientations.
In effect, there is an obvious shift from the traditional collection development and services approaches to modern trends in library and information and documentation services. Libraries, until the past two decades, were basically discharging their functions via the provision of printed materials and rendering of traditional services which made it compulsory for face to face contact with the users before they could receive any service (Ukachi, 2011). According to Ukachi (2011), presently the service delivery of libraries especially that in higher education sector has taken another dimension. Information needs of learners and knowledge seekers are met through a plethora of sources Digital Information Resources(DIRs), that is, library resources in electronic formats, are now acquired by libraries to compliment the printed materials.
Digital Information Resources (DIRs) play a prominent role in facilitating access to required information by the users in an easy and expeditious manner of undergraduate students. Negahban and Mysore (2009) asserted that digital Information Resources (DIRs) in reality have become the backbones of many academic institutions. They serve as a motivating factor to students as they provide them opportunity to transmit, acquire or download, process and disseminate information on any subject of interest. Further, Ukachi, (2011) however stated that, the use of Digital Information Resources (DIRs) aid the users to keep abreast with current developments in their respective subject fields, in contrast with print media which are not regularly updated like the electronic ones.
The creation and dissemination of Digital Information Resources (DIRs) is driving fundamental changes in what librarians currently do. Hence digital libraries create and contribute to knowledge without much hurdles (stress) compared to conventional system. In the electronic
era, human beings can increase their knowledge bases through digital means independent of discipline, time and geography. It therefore, guarantees open access to global knowledge and digital libraries are transforming education by providing organised access to high quality resources and tools that support innovations in teaching, learning and research at all levels of education worldwide (Otubelu, 2010).
The importance of digital libraries in area of information and knowledge provisions to human resources in all sphere of life cannot be over -emphasized. It is obvious that academic libraries all over the world and particularly in Nigeria are challenged with issues such as paucity of finance to acquire information resources in print form, and even subscribe to electronic resources; competent library professionals suitable for the digital era are also inadequate.
Another potential problem in digital age in developing countries is hardware and software related problems, human resources to mann the technologies effectively as well as power supply instability. This situation is prevalent in most academic libraries and has great implication for education development of this nation (Omekwu, 2002).
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