assessment OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION IN NIGERIA CASE study BENIN CITY
ASSESSMENT OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION IN NIGERIA CASE STUDY BENIN CITY
1.1 Background Of The Study
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as “all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia and/or injury to the female genital organs, whether for cultural or any other nontherapeutic reasons” (World Health Organisation 1998).
FGM is condemned by governments and non-governmental organisations around the world as an infringement on the physical and psychosexual integrity of the female child. According to UNICEF, Nigeria has the highest absolute number of FGM instances in the world, accounting for almost one-quarter of the estimated 115-130 million circumcised women worldwide (UNICEF 2001).
According to Okeke (2012), the frequency of FGM among adult Nigerian women is 41%. Nigeria is a West African country located between Benin and Cameroon on the Gulf of Guinea. According to the 2006 National Population Census (National Bureau of Statistics 2006), it has an area of 923,768.00 square kilometres and a population of 140,431,790 people.
he male population was 71,345,488 and the female population was 69,086,302 (National Bureau of Statistics 2006). This research was carried out in a tertiary hospital in Edo State, one of Nigeria's 36 states. Edo State has a population of 2,398,957 people, with 1,215,487 women and 69,086,302 men (National Bureau of Statistics 2006).
It is mostly inhabited by the Edos, who are known for having a high level of literacy in terms of formal education and for producing a decent number of professors in Nigeria (Adesina 2008).According to the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 30% of females aged 15 to 40 had female circumcision, with the Yoruba and Igbo ethnic groups having the greatest percentages (58.4% and 51.4%, respectively) (National Population Commission 2009).
According to Olamijulo et al., the prevalence of FGM among children assessed at the child welfare clinic at Wesley Guild Hospital in Ilesha, Nigeria, is 66.3%.Since 1999, the following Nigerian states have forbidden this act: Abia, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Ogun, Osun, and Rivers. However, as public knowledge of the dangers of FGM grows, the practise was recently prohibited in Nigeria as a nation in 2015.
As a result, the prevalence rate in younger age groups is predicted to gradually fall. The four varieties of FGM practised in Nigeria are as follows: clitoridectomy or type I, which involves the removal of the prepuce or hood of the clitoris as well as all or part of the clitoris.
Type II or “sunna” is a more severe procedure that involves the removal of the clitoris as well as partial or entire excision of the labia minora. The clitoris, labia minora, and adjacent medial section of the labia majora are removed, and the vaginal aperture is stitched, leaving an opening the size of a pin head to allow for menstrual flow or urine.
Introcision and gishiri cuts, hymenectomy, scraping and/or cutting of the vagina, the introduction of corrosive substances and herbs in the vagina, and other forms are examples of type IV or other unclassified types. The consequences of female genital mutilation include increased risks of urinary tract infections, bleeding, bacterial vaginosis, dyspareunia, obstetric complications, psychological problems such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stressFemale genital mutilation is divided into four categories (WHO, 1996).
The most common type of female genital mutilation is type 2, which accounts for up to 80% of all instances, whereas type 3 accounts for roughly 15% of total procedures (WHO, 1996; Oduro et al., 2006). FGM types 1 and 4 account for the remaining 5%. The outcomes differ depending on the type of FGM and the intensity of the procedure (Onuh et al., 2006; Oduro et al., 2006).
FGM has a wide range of consequences for women's physical, psychological, sexual, and reproductive health, significantly reducing their current and future quality of life (Oduro et al., 2006; Larsen, 2002). Severe pain, shock, haemorrhage, urinary problems, harm to neighbouring tissue, and even death are among the immediate complications (Onuh et al., 2006; Oduro et al., 2006; Larsen, 2002).
Urinary incontinence, painful sexual intercourse, sexual dysfunction, fistula formation, infertility, menstrual dysfunctions, and problems with child delivery are among the long-term effects (Akpuaka, 1998; Okonofua et al., 2002; Oguguo and Egwuatu, 1982).
Many studies have been conducted to emphasise the physical and psychological consequences of female genital mutilation (Onuh et al., 2006; Oduro et al., 2006; Badejo, 1983; Klouman et al., 2005; ACHPR, 2003; Ibekwe, 2004). Recently, there has been widespread concern about the increased rate of HIV transmission as a result of this practise (WHO, 1996; Klouman et al., 2005).
This practise is also a violation of women's and girls' human rights. When the practise results in death, FGM breaches the right to health, security, and physical integrity, as well as the freedom from torture and cruelty, inhuman or humiliating treatment, and the right to life.
It is a severe type of violation, intimidation, and discrimination. Despite the fact that Nigeria ratified the Maputo Protocols and was one of the countries that sponsored a resolution at the 46th World Health Assembly calling for the abolition of female genital mutilation in all nations (Klouman et al., 2005; ACHPR, 2003; Idowu, 2008), this harmful practise has continued unabated.
1.2 statement Of The Problem
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is still practised in many regions of the world, which is unfortunate. This is frequent in underdeveloped countries where it is deeply rooted in culture and custom, despite decades of campaigning and legislation against it (Onuh et al., 2006; WHO, 2008).
Female genital mutilation is defined as any procedure that involves the partial or entire removal of external female genitalia or any harm to female genital organs for cultural, religious, or other non-therapeutic reasons (WHO, 2008; WHO, 1996).
The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that between 100 and 140 million girls and women worldwide are currently subjected to female genital mutilation, with an additional three million girls at risk each year (WHO, 2008). In light of this, the researcher seeks to evaluate the impact of female genital mutilation.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The study's main goal is to examine female genital mutilation in Nigeria, with a focus on Edo state. However, in order to complete the study, the researcher intends to meet the following sub-objective;
i) To research the impact of female genital mutilation on the sex drive of the female kid.
ii) To study the government's role in preventing female genital mutilation.
iii) To look into the health implications of female genital mutilation.
iv) Determine the primary cause of female genital mutilation
The researcher developed the following research hypotheses to aid in the completion of the investigation.
H0:Female genital mutilation has little effect on the sexual habits of girls.
H1: Female genital mutilation has a substantial impact on the sexual habits of girls.
H0:The government has no important role in preventing female genital mutilation.
H2:The government plays an important role in banning female genital mutilation.
1.5 Significance Of The Study
The study, when completed, is expected to be of great importance to the federal ministry of women affairs and the house committee on women affairs because it will help them formulate policy that will help prohibit or eliminate the archaic and orthodox practise of female genital mutilation.
The study will also be of great importance to every parent because it seeks to expose the dangers of female genital mutilation among females. The study will also be very useful to students who plan to do research on a similar topic because the study's findings will act as a guide for them.
Finally, the study will be very useful to students, teachers, and the general public because the findings will be added to the body of current literature.
1.6 Scope And Limitations Of The Study
The study's scope includes an examination of female genital mutilation in Nigeria, with a focus on Benin City. However, there were several elements in the study's aetiology that limited the breadth of the investigation.
a) RESEARCH MATERIAL AVAILABILITY: The researcher's research material is insufficient, restricting the scope of the investigation.
b) TIME: The study's time frame does not allow for broader coverage because the researcher must balance other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) FINANCE: The funding available for the study project does not allow for broader coverage because resources are constrained due to the researcher's other academic obligations.
1.7 Definition Of Terms
Female refers to an organism or portion of an organism that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells). With the exception of a few uncommon medical problems, most female mammals, including female humans, have two X chromosomes.
genital mutilation among women
FGM, also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. The practise is prevalent in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, as well as within communities from places where FGM is prevalent.
Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of total physical, mental, and social well-being, rather than merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, also known as sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions, and system at all stages of life.
Reproductive health implies that people can have a responsible, satisfying, and safer sexual life, as well as the ability to reproduce and the choice to choose if, when, and how frequently to do so. According to one interpretation, men and women should be informed about and have access to safe, effective, affordable, and acceptable methods of birth control;
Access to appropriate health care services of sexual, reproductive medicine, and the implementation of health education programmes to emphasise the importance of women going safely through pregnancy and childbirth could provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant.
1.8 Organization Of The Study
This research paper is divided into five chapters for easy comprehension. The first chapter is concerned with the introduction, which includes the (background of the investigation), issue statement, aims of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study, and so on.
The second chapter, a survey of related literature, offers the theoretical framework, conceptual framework, and other areas linked to the subject matter. The third chapter is a research methodology chapter that discusses the research strategy and methodologies used in the study.
The fourth chapter focuses on data gathering, analysis, and presenting of findings. The study's summary, conclusion, and suggestions are presented in Chapter 5.