Title page i
Table of contents vi
Background of the study 1Statement of the problem 3Objectives of the study 5Research questions 6Research hypotheses 6Significance of the study 7Scope and limitation of the study 7Research methodology 7Definition of Terms 8Chapterization of the study 8
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review 11
CHAPTER THREE: Oil and Nigeria-China Relations 54
CHAPTER FOUR: China’s Trade and Investment in Nigeria 89
Chinese Investment Flow in Nigeria 89
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, conclusion and recommendations 107
Summary 107Recommendation 109
Chapter One Introduction
During the Cold War ideological conflicts between the capitalist Western bloc and the communist Eastern bloc dominated international politics (Cesa, 2009:177). In response, Afro-
Asian countries convened the Bandung Conference of 1955 in Indonesia to demonstrate their amity and impartiality towards the Cold War belligerents. This was the precursor of the nonaligned movement (Hunter & Sexton, 1999:181). Among the countries involved was China, a communist state and a solid ally of the Soviet Union up to the mid-1950s. The Sino-Soviet alliance ebbed away as China inveighed against, inter alia, the 1956 Soviet invasion of Hungary and criticised Nikita Khrushchev‟s idea of peaceful coexistence with the capitalist West (Lüthi, 2008). China also wanted to adhere to a strict form of communism which prescribed that capitalist and imperialist systems could only be replaced with a more humane and communist structure through radical revolution which would more likely involve violence. The Soviet Union under Khrushchev was distancing itself from this view and entertained the possibility of a parliamentary solution to capitalism and imperialism. China accused the Soviet Union of revisionism and made clear its ambition to be the due representative of communism and this gave birth to China Relations with Africa (Hunter & Sexton, 1999:183).
China‟s engagement with Africa has continued for over half a century. The Sino-African Relations have evolved from “brothers” (Chang, 2006) to “strategic partners” (China‟s African Policy, 2006) with the changes of China‟s domestic situation and international environment. Launched in 2000, the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) has become an important vehicle of China-Africa strategic partnership to boost cooperation in various fields (China Urges, 2010). In 2006 “strategic partnership (China‟s African Policy, 2006)” has been articulated again as China‟s dominant Africa Policy. Instead of singing the old tune of proletarian internationalism which stressed “rich ideology and the reinforcement of political benefits (Sorensen, 2010, p139)”, the policy paper highlights “economic win-win cooperation (China‟s African Policy,
2006),” which can be better understood within the framework of “South-South cooperation (China Africa, 2000)”.
China‟s engagement in Africa is one of the most controversial issues in international relations in the new century. Abundant books, academic papers and media reports have appeared, focusing on several aspects of china‟s activities on the continent. Opinions are diverse. In her book The Dragon’s Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa, American professor Deborah Brautigam (2010) highlights the positive roles of china‟s involvement in Africa. When defending the criticism such as human rights from the West, she stresses that the West did the same or even worse things at times in the past, and points out china‟s inability of handling some issues such as labour practice that are not solved yet inside China neither.
China as economic partner to Nigeria has been very dogged and focused in its relations with Nigeria over the decades. Despite the ups and downs of Nigeria-China relations, the Chinese have continued to ensure that their market shares in Nigeria remain on a steady path of growth. This should suggest that China has a long term plan for its engagement with Africa, and it is important for African states, particularly Nigeria to develop a strategy for managing the relationship (Alli, 2007).
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