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This research seeks to examine the relationship between training and development on workers commitment. In this y therefore, we have employed the survey y design that is cross sectional. s of the y will now form the basis for generalization. The population of the y consist of the staff of Spar Port Harcourt. From the researchers statistics, there are 120 employees in spar. Using the Taro Yemen formular the researcher arrived at 96 respondents making the sample of the y.  The structure questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents for this y. This y utilizes both descriptive and inferential statistics. Mainly, the chi- square statistical tool is adopted, to ascertain the level of correlation between the independent variable and the dependent variable. The descriptive statistics was used to describe the demographic information of respondents. Ultimately, the chi-square tool is a non-parametric tool. The y concluded that training and development has an effect on workers’ commitment in the organization. Based on the findings, the following recommendations amongst other are made: That management should emphasize frequent training of employees to enhance skill development; since training and development has a positive effect on workers commitment and that management should ensure continued and adequate supply of relevant knowledge and skill to the employees.

Table of Contents

TITLE PAGE       i


Certification         iii

Dedication  iv

Abstract      v


List of Tables       ix

List of Figures      x

CHAPTER 1        1


1.1 Background of the Study  1

1.2 Statement of the Problem: 3

1.3 Objectives of the Study:    4

1.4 Research Questions: 4

1.5 Research Hypotheses        4

1.6 Significance of the Study   5

1.7 Scope/Delimitation of the Study 5

1.8 Definition of Terms: 6

CHAPTER 2        7


2.1 Conceptual Framework     7

2.1.1 Concept of Training and Development       7

2.1.2 Dimensions of Training and Development: 13

2.1.3 Concept of Workers’ Commitment   14

2.1.4 Measures of Workers’ Commitment 15

2.1.5 Training and Development and Workers Commitment  16

2.2 Theoretical Framework     18

2.2.1 Human Capital Theory  18

2.3 Empirical Framework       19

CHAPTER 3        22


3.1 Research Design      22

3.2 Population of the Study    22

3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques        23

3.4 Methods of Data Collection        24

3.5 Method of Data Analysis  25

3.6 Questionnaire Design        25

3.7     Data Analytical Techniques    25

3.8 Reliability and Validity     26

CHAPTER 4        27


4.1 Data Collection and          27

Table 4.1: Questionnaire Administration and Retrieval 27

4.2 Data Analysis 28

Table 4.2: showing the age of respondents 28

Table 4.3: Showing the Gender/Sex of Respondents     28

Table 4.5: Showing the Marital Status of Respondents 29

4.3 Hypotheses Testing 31

4.3 Discussion of Findings      35

CHAPTER 5        37


5.1 Summary       37

5.2 Conclusions   37

5.3 Recommendations   37

References  39

Appendix II          47

List of Tables

Table 4.2: showing the age of respondents 28

Table 4.3: Showing the Gender/Sex of Respondents     28

Table 4.5: Showing the Marital Status of Respondents 29


1.1 Background of the Study

Commitment is dedication to a particular organization, cause, or belief, and a willingness to get involved. Workers commitment is the state or quality of being dedicated to a cause or activity. It is an engagement or obligation that restricts dom of action. Workers Commitment is conceived in the three forms identified in literature, as affective, continuance, and normative commitment (Khan, 2013). Workers commitment is a condition in which an employee recognizes himself/herself with a particular organization and its objectives, and wants to remain its participant. A y recommends that workers commitment guides to lesser degrees of both absenteeism and turnover (Khan et al, 2009). One way an employee can be committed is through training and development. Training and development represents an area within practices that can have a significant impact on workers commitment to the organization. The practices employed by organizations helps to enhance employee skills and commitment hence increases employee commitment (Sacks, 2001).  Training and development is one of the modern management approaches in management. Emerging literatures have shown that the investment in human capital such as training is positively related to organizational commitment. That is, training is expected to reduce turnover, and increase workers commitment, which will result in longer employment duration.

Training & development increases the workers commitment like the researcher said in his research that training & development is an important activity to increase the commitment of health sector organization (Iftikhar Ahmad and Siraj-ud-din, 2009).Another researcher said that employee commitment is the important factor and the building block which increases the workers commitment of overall organization. Employee commitment depends on many factors like job satisfaction, knowledge and management but there is relatinship between traning and workers commitment (Amisano, 2010).This shows that employee commitment is important for the commitment of the organizationand the and the traning & and development is beneficial for the employee to improve. (Sitienei, Egessa & Owano, 2015), argue that investing in training constitutes a powerful signaling device to reassure employees that they are valued by their employers, which in turn enhances their commitments to the organization. Training has been a subject of debate with various functions and definitions given to it. To some training is the ability of an organization to develop skills and knowledge to do present and future job (Guest 1997) and to others it is an important employee motivator (Barret & O‟Connell 2001). Different literatures have suggested that the development of a firm‟s human capital can provide a sustainable source of competitive advantage for the firm (Olson and Schwab, 2004). 

Investment by the organization in employee training is intended to send a commitment message to its employees that individual development is a valued goal of the organization (McElroy, 2001). Training is used to enhance specific skills and correct commitment issues to empower employees with the skills needed for the current and future job requirement (Gold, 2001). The levels of training and development activities among the employees influence employee commitment (Ivancevich 2010), in the sense that the employees are provided with skills and knowledge on commitment of their jobs.  In a y done by Buck and Watson (2002) on commitment of HR practices like decentralization, compensation, participation, training and development, employment security, social interaction, management styles, communication and commitment among the Higher Education staff in Pakistan and the  results revealed that  training and development  increases employee commitment. This finding is similar to the findings by Imran (2012) who did a y on Human resource management practices on organization support, communication, training /development, compensation, organizational climate, work life policies, career development opportunities and empowerment on employee commitment among the service sector employees in Nigeria.  The findings indicated that training and development were significantly related to employee commitment.

1.2 Statement of the Problem:

Training and development play a vital role in any organization today. Spar is one of the fastest growing mall in Rivers State. It is also among the top-job creating sector because its labor intensive nature and the significant multiplier effect on employment in other related sectors. There are various forms of training carried out in Spar, Port Harcourt; this y however seeks to examine how the various training has helped in developing staffs and also improving their commitment on the job. Debra and Ofori (2001) explained that despite the increasing effects on training of organizational employees, there is still limited literature on human resource development issues in developing countries. Despite the fact that training and development is well planned and systematic in Spar, Port Harcourt, it still have issues of employees still not performing up to standard operating procedure in the work environment. Some of the employees have not enhanced their skills and abilities to enable them to be effective and efficient on their job duties. Overtime, there have been complaints from the management and some of the clients about some employees‟ commitment and attitude towards the job, it has however been an issue to ponder on that despite several training undergone in the organization there are still some employees that their level of commitment to work has not improved. The motive behind this y is to understand and know the reasons why training and development do not have any impact on some workers commitment in Spar, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

1.3 Objectives of the Study:

The main objective of this y is to examine the relationship between training and development on employee commitment.

In specific terms, the y seeks to:

1.       Examine the relationship between off-the job training and workers’ commitment in Spar, Port Harcourt.

2.       Examine the relationship between on-the job training and workers’ commitment in Spar, Port Harcourt.

3.       Examine the relationship between delivery style and workers’ commitment in Spar, Port Harcourt.

1.4 Research Questions:

1.       To what extent does off-the job training influences workers’ commitment in Spar, Port Harcourt?

2.       To what extent does on-the job training influences workers’ commitment in Spar, Port Harcourt?

3.       To what extent does delivery style influences workers’ commitment in Spar, Port Harcourt?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

HO1: There is no significant relationship between off-the job training and workers’ commitment in Spar, Port Harcourt.

HO2: There is no significant relationship between on-the job training and workers’ commitment in Spar, Port Harcourt.

HO3: There is no significant relationship between delivery style and workers’ commitment in Spar, Port Harcourt.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The y will serve as guide to the management of Spar Port Harcourt as a whole in determining the best way of getting the best output from their employees who are presently demoralized in the face of the prevailing socio-economic hardship.

The y is also aimed at contributing to the literature in human resource management particularly with reference to training and development in an organization. In addition, this work after completion will aid and provide a guide to ents who has interest to this y through the provision of related literature.

1.7 Scope/Delimitation of the Study

This y is delimited in two aspects: contextually and geographically. Contextually, the y is delimited to examining the relationship between training and development and employee commitment. The independent variable, training and development is measured by off-the job training, on-the job training and service delivery while the dependent variable, employee commitment is measured by affective, continuous and normative commitment as it measures.

Also, geographically speaking, the research is delimited to staffs in Spar, Port Harcourt to ascertain their response on the extent to which training and development has necessitates their commitment in the organisation.

The major limitation of the y is the short time frame the research lasted, coupled with the tight academic time table, which prevented a very comprehensive y. The fund available to the researcher was also limited and therefore the y was limited to a small portion of the survey population. Another limitation is the difficulties, encountered by the researcher in obtaining all needed information and materials from the right source and compilation of data for the project.

1.8 Definition of Terms:

Development: this is the systematic use of scientific and technical knowledge to meet specific objectives or requirements.

Employee commitment: this is simply employees’ attitude to organization.

On-The-Job Training: it is the kind of training that takes place while doing the job.

Off-The-Job Training: This method of training takes place outside the organization.

Training:  this is the act that involves growing the knowledge and skill level of an employee in order to perform a specific job”.

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