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THE NEED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN SELECTED TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN ANAMBRA STATE

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Project Topic:
THE NEED FOR THE OPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN SELECTED TERTIARY IN ANAMBRA STATE

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE
It has been generally noticed that unemployment of graduates of Nigerian tertiary institutions has become a prevalence national issue. Lots of university graduates enter the labour market in search of well paid employment yearly. According to Owusu-Ansha and Poku (2012), “the challenge is not only to fight the large number of unemployed graduates, but also of absorbing the new entrants into the labour market. It was generally seen that many graduates were unemployed because the training they got was not effective to equip them with expected skills and competencies required for job creation and self employment” (Madumere-obike, 2017; Amaewhule, 2014 and Nwangwu, 2014). Adejinmola and Olufunmilayo (2015) stated that the issue with Nigerian educational programs, however, is that too much importance is attached to the value of the qualification rather than the holder. In other words, under graduates work hard to acquire the degree rather than obtain the knowledge and skills that would make them self-independent. The desire for academic qualification is probably not unconnected to the colonial influence that handed down a lot of theoretical disciplines through our educational programs which may emphasize much on theories rather than a collaboration of theories and practical with focus on skills acquisition (Okojie, 2010). Perhaps, the attended outcome is high rate of joblessness being seen in Nigeria recently. According to Postigo and Tamborini (2013), the academic schedule of most universities have a capacity to emphasize on the education of students towards a professional career as employees and that there is rarely any consideration for developing competences that will allow graduates to start their own ventures. Bassey and Archibong (2012) asserted that the aim of entrepreneurship education is to empower graduates despite their areas of discipline with skills that will help them engage in income yielding ventures if they are not able to secure employments. It is a reorientation from job searching to job creating. Studies (e.g Olaitan, 2011; Williams, 2013; Ogbimi, 2014) have shown that Nigerian graduates can only be self dependent and marketable if they acquire the important skills and knowledge in tertiary levels. From to the authors, this should go above just teaching of knowledge and skills in principles, which are absent of practical experiences in related fields. The study of Uduak and Aniefiok (2011) also shows that there is a significant positive relationship between entrepreneurship education and career choice of students of higher institutions of learning. Having understood the importance of entrepreneurship education, a lot of researchers are now diverting their focus to the study of economic development via entrepreneurship education because Entrepreneurship education has become the determinant for a framework that strengthens the creative potential for business opening (Haveman et al. 2012; Zuperka and Zuperkiene, 2012). In a study executed by Tkachev and Kolvereid (2011) among Russia students, it was observed that self-employment mindset among students of tertiary institution could be magnified through entrepreneurship education. The studies support the need to design effective entrepreneurship courses and teaching methods that can inspire students’ interest in self employment. A survey carried out in Nigeria by National Centre for Technology Management (NACETEM) in 2010, revealed that entrepreneurial interest among Nigerian students is quite high but the expression of the interest in practice is rather low. The factors indicated to be responsible for this are poor funding and inadequate preparation through training. According to Uduak and Aniefiok (2011), to make up for the curricula shortcomings in meeting employment problem in Nigeria, the National Universities Commission (NUC) in July, 2012, set up workshop on entrepreneurship for Nigerian universities as a way forward. The NUC workshop yielded a draft curriculum on entrepreneurial studies for Nigerian Universities in order to eradicate the issue of unemployment in the country. The NUC, in conjuction with education policy, directed all universities in the country to establish entrepreneurial centers and that entrepreneurial training should be given to all Nigerian undergraduates. While most Nigerian universities have initiated the programme, little research is available to assess its impact and also to confirm if a relationship exists between students taking courses in entrepreneurship and their intention of becoming entrepreneurs. The rationale for the inclusion of entrepreneurship curricula in universities according to Cotton, O’Gorman and Stampfi (2017) is that it will help graduates to acquire increased understanding of entrepreneurship, equip them with an entrepreneurial approach to the world of work and prepare them to become entrepreneurs. According to Dionco-Adetayo (2014), most Nigerian universities have started the entrepreneurship training about a decade ago; hence, there is a need for assessment. In 2015, Olaleye carried out a study in three universities in Southwestern Nigeria on entrepreneurship education. The findings of the study revealed that 92.2% of the students were aware of the programs in their universities and were ready to set up their own businesses. However, they complained of lack of fund to establish their businesses; and inadequate funding by the Government for the development of entrepreneurship education in Nigerian universities. Hence the study examine the need for the development of entrepreneurship education in selected tertiary institutions in Anambra State
1.2      STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Entrepreneurship Education is aimed at the overall training of individuals and tertiary institution undergraduates for useful living. The importance of entrepreneurial education cannot be overemphasized as entrepreneurship education is expected to train students to develop skills that would help its recipients to be self-sufficient instead of depending on the white collar to provide job that are mostly nonexistent. Tertiary education students are therefore trained on vocational and other relevant skill that will make them self reliant that can start a business after school rather than waiting for none existing job. In Nigeria, like in many developing countries in Africa, the practical benefits of entrepreneurial education have not been achieved, graduate unemployment and under-employment is still very high. In fact, the National Bureau of ics reported that a rise in unemployment rate to 18.8 percent from 16.2 percent of the population with Rivers State topping the list with an unemployment rate of 41.82 percent which implies that for every 10 persons in Rivers State are without anything to do (NBS, 2014). In this 10 person, about 2 could be graduates who while in school studied entrepreneurship education at one point in time. Therefore, this high graduate unemployment rate can be seen conspicuously as a result of certain factors which militate against the effective implementation of entrepreneurship education in tertiary institutions cut across Nigeria. It is on this premises that this study seeks to examine the need for the development of entrepreneurship education in selected tertiary institutions in Anambra State
1.3      MS OF THE
The major aim of the study is to examine the need for the development of entrepreneurship education in selected tertiary institutions in Anambra State. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1.  To examine the nature of entrepreneurship education in selected tertiary institutions in Anambra state
2.  To examine objectives and component of entrepreneurship education in selected tertiary institutions in Anambra state
3.  To examine impact  of entrepreneurship education on self reliance of tertiary institutions graduates in Anambra state
4.  To examine challenges of entrepreneurship education in selected tertiary institutions in Anambra state
5.  To examine relationship between entrepreneurship education and self reliance of tertiary institutions graduates in Anambra state
6.  To examine the need for the development of entrepreneurship education in selected tertiary institutions in Anambra state
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.  What is the nature of entrepreneurship education in selected tertiary institutions in Anambra state?
2.  What are the objectives and component of entrepreneurship education in selected tertiary institutions in Anambra state?
3.  What is impact of entrepreneurship education on self reliance of tertiary institutions graduates in Anambra state?
4.  What are the challenges of entrepreneurship education in selected tertiary institutions in Anambra state?
5.  What is the relationship between entrepreneurship education and self reliance of tertiary institutions graduates in Anambra State?
6.  What is the need for the development of entrepreneurship education in selected tertiary institutions in Anambra state?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Hypothesis 1
H0: There are is no significant impact of entrepreneurship education on self reliance of tertiary institutions graduates in Anambra State.
H1: There is a significant impact of entrepreneurship education on self reliance of tertiary institutions graduates in Anambra State.
Hypothesis 2
H0: There is no significant relationship between entrepreneurship education and self reliance of tertiary institutions graduates in Anambra State.
H1: There is a significant relationship between entrepreneurship education and self reliance of tertiary institutions graduates in Anambra State.
1.5 SIGNIFICA OF THE
The study will be of profound benefits to enlighten the tertiary education students and stakeholders in the education sector on the need for effective entrepreneurship education development. This study would also be of immense benefit to students and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE
The study is restricted to the need for the development of entrepreneurship education in selected tertiary institutions in Anambra State.
LIMITATION OF THE
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the .
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Entrepreneurship: is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.
Entrepreneurship Education: is defined by Emeraton (2010) as that which deals with those attitudes and skills that are necessary for the individual to respond to his environment in the process of conserving, starting and managing a business enterprise.

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