1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Broadcasting is a primary means by which information, opinions, ideas and entertainment are delivered to the public or private concerns in virtually every nation around the world. It refers to transmission of electromagnetic audio signals (radio) or audio-visual signals (Television) that are accessible to a wide population via standard readily available receivers (Ogunmilade, 1998). Broadcasting is a crucial instrument of modern source and political nature in the 21st century. Radio and television (TV) broadcasting has been employed by political leaders to address nations, because of their capacity to reach and influence large number of people (Agbari, 1992). Historically speaking, the broadcast media got to Nigeria in 1932, when the radio broadcasting service of British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) started as empire service of the BBC. But in 1933, after realizing the role of Broadcasting within the educational field the BBC transmitted the first educational programme to her West African overseas service. The 1st Nigeria educational radio broadcast programmes were for English language via the radio distribution service under the posts and telegraphs department. However, Abimbade (2006) confirmed that in 1957 the Nigeria Broadcast Service was established which eventually took over the transmission of educational programmes. Renewed demands and requests by various interests groups for the expansion of the Nigeria Broadcast Service (NBS) to cover the entire nation led the ancient colonial administration to invite Mr. Richard Postgonte (an ex-head of BBC school broadcasts) to look into the possibility of introducing an educational radio service in Nigeria. It was his report that brought about the establishment of a school broadcast unit in the NBS. According to Abimbade (2006), by 1957 the NBS has been transformed to Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation (NBC). The NBC was established by an act of Parliament no 39 of 1956, but began operations as a statutory corporation on 1st April, 1957. It was in activity till 1978 when the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) came into being owing to the Decree no 8, in 1979. This decree dissolved the NBC and handed over twenty radio stations to various state government retaining only those at Ibadan, Lagos, Enugu which were all merged with the former broadcasting company of Northern Nigeria all which formed the FRCN at inception (nbc. 2012). The first television station in the country was established by the then Western Nigeria Regional Government headed by the late Chief Obafemi Awolowo. The Western Nigeria Television at Ibadan was established with the sole objectives to entertain, inform and educate. However, other regional governments in Nigeria namely, Eastern and Northern regional governments and the Federal TV in Lagos were established for the same purpose. In addition, the use of broadcast-media in education was initially limited to primary, secondary schools and teacher’s training colleges. But with the assistance of the United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Institute of Education University of Ibadan in 1962 established an Audio-Visual Unit. The institute workshops were related to the use of audio-visuals and established a closed circuit television (CCTV) for teaching education related courses. Olumorin (2006) observed that from this time, other tertiary institutions in the country have taken steps to integrate the use of broadcast media in teaching and learning at various levels.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Broadcast media for instructional delivery for open and distance learning in Nigeria is very important to the older adults and people that combine working and schoolling at the same time; howver there are some challenges facing the use of broadcast media, one of the problem is the issue of privatization and choice of news to broadcast. Lastly there have been series of studies on braodcasting but not even a single study is based on the impact of broadcast media on instructional delivery for open and distance learning in Nigeria.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is to determine the impact of broadcast media on instructional delivery for open and distance learning in Nigeria. The objectives of the study are:
To determine the relationship between broadcast media and instructional delivery for open and distance learning in Nigeria
The ascertain the importance of broadcast media for instructional delivery for open and distance learning in Nigeria
To identify the factors affecting the use of broadcast media for instructional delivery for open and distance learning in Nigeria
To recommend ways to improve open and distance learning through broadcast media
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions guide the objectives of the study:
What is the relationship between broadcast media and instructional delivery for open and distance learning in Nigeria?
What is the importance of broadcast media for instructional delivery for open and distance learning in Nigeria?
What are the factors affecting the use of broadcast media for instructional delivery for open and distance learning in Nigeria?
What are the ways to improve open and distance learning through broadcast media?
1.5 STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS
H0: there is no significant relationship between broadcast media and instructional delivery for open and distance learning in Nigeria
H1: there is significant relationship between broadcast media and instructional delivery for open and distance learning in Nigeria
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study on the impact of broadcast media on instructional delivery for open and distance learning in Nigeria will be of immense help to national open university markudi center. The study findings of the study will also establish a correlation between broadcast media and instructional delivery for open and distance learning in Nigeria. The study will also serve as a source of information to the open and distance learning centers and contribute to the body of the existing literature on the impact of broadcast media on instructional delivery for open and distance learning in Nigeria
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study covers on the impact of broadcast media on instructional delivery for open and distance learning in Nigeria with focus on national open university, makurdi center.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
BROADCAST MEDIA: Broadcast media describes the traditional forms of media that include television and radio. Technically, the term ‘broadcast media’ can include the internet as well and even such things as Bluetooth marketing and other forms of location-based transmissions
INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY: Instructional Delivery refers to the interaction among the student, the teacher, the content, and the. knowledge/skills/dispositions students will need for learning and collaborating with others in a diverse. society and rapidly changing world. The process of instructional delivery involves applying a repertoire
DISTANCE EDUCATION: Distance education, also called distance learning, is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school. Traditionally, this usually involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school via mail. Today, it involves online education
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