EFFECT OF TELEVISION ADVERTISEMENTS ON CHILDREN’S EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF CALABAR SOUTH LGA
Background of the Study
Early childhood is a time children become aware of television and movie characters. Throughout history, familiar characters have appealed to children from an early age. The expansion of television advertisements in recent years through sources such as cable TV and video games has greatly increased the number and variety of such characters and their related toys.
The entire study of mass communication was based on the assumption that the television advertisement has significant effects, yet there was little agreement on the nature and extent of these assumed effects, McQuail (2007:456). This uncertainty was more surprising since everyday experience provides countless examples of influence. For example, we dress for the weather as forecast, buy something because of an advert, go to a film mentioned in a newspaper, react to television advertisement news, films, and music, etc.
There are many cases of negative television advertisement publicity, for instance, food contamination leading to significant changes in food consumption behavior, acts of violence or suicide appear to be copied or stimulated by television advertisement portrayals. McQuail further asserts that our minds are full of television advertisement derive information and impressions as we live in a world saturated by television advertisement sounds and images.
Few people cannot think of some personal instance of gaining significant information or of forming an opinion because of the television advertisement… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Statement of the Problem
The general purpose of advertising is to create awareness and educate consumers on the existing product’s promotion in television-supposes that and advertisement is effective because people see how the product is advertised on television. Most kids play into the world of television long before they enter school… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The objectives of the study were:
- To ascertain the influence of television advertisements on children’s educational development… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
This chapter reviewed literature relevant to this research study; Impact of Television Advertisements on the educational development of children. This chapter was organized under the following headings; Review of Concepts, Review of related studies, Theoretical framework, and Summary.
Review of concepts
- Concept of children
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human between the stages of birth and puberty. The legal definition of a child generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority.
The child may also describe a relationship with a parent (such as sons and daughters of any age) or, metaphorically, an authority figure, or signify group membership in a clan, tribe, or religion; it can also signify being strongly affected by a specific time, place, or circumstance, as in “a child of nature” or “a child of the Sixties”.
- Legal, biological, and social definitions
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child defines a child as “a human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child, the majority is attained earlier”. This is ratified by 192 of 194 member countries. Some English definitions of the word ‘child’ include the fetus and the unborn. Biologically, a child is anyone between birth and puberty or in the developmental stage of childhood, between infancy and adulthood.
Children generally have fewer rights than adults and are classed as unable to make serious decisions, and legally must always be under the care of a responsible adult… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
- Concept of Advertising:
Advertising is a form of communication for marketing and used to encourage, persuade, or manipulate an audience (viewers, readers, or listeners; sometimes a specific group) to continue or take some new action. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common.
This type of work belongs to a category called affective labor. In Latin, ad vertere means “to turn toward. The purpose of advertising may also be to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful.
Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various traditional media; including mass media such as newspaper, magazines, television commercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail; or new media such as blogs, websites or text messages… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Control of Advertising Practice In Nigeria
The issue concerning control of advertising practice in Nigeria comes to limelight in the case involving Olayemi Adekoya, V.K Yalande and others. This case as contained in page 3,4 and 5 of advertising in Nigeria, volume 5, No 1 October 1985, the official journals of the Association of Advertising Practitioners in Nigeria (AAPN).
Justice Sinadu of the Lagos high Court noted the existence of the private law of constitution and roles of the AAPN and of assent of members agencies to a code of advertising practice and opinioned that advertising agency or practitioners are willing to be controlled by the AAPN Association of advertising practitioners in Nigeria… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The theory used to guide this study is the social learning theory. This theory was propounded by Albert Bandura. The theory assume that people especially children tend to learn aggressive behavior from the mass media and model their behavior on that of the dramatic personnel and their learning process is similar to that by which children imitate the behavior of adults around them.
However, the likelihood of exhibiting learned aggression is moderated by personal circumstances such as social situation, it is pointed out that children learn faster with television. It provides them with pleasure, thrills them, and shows them things and people they have not seen before, this widens their knowledge… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
This chapter deals with the method employed in data gathering for this study. Methodology generally refers to the procedures or approaches used in a research work or in an investigation. Methodology is the process by which systematic and logical study of the principles guiding scientific investigation is accomplished.
There are several research methods available for a study of this nature which ranges from experimentation, observation survey and content analysis. However this study adopted the survey method since this is behavioral study and the survey method is believed to be more appropriate… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Instrumentation here entails the tool used in data gathering for a research. The research instrument used for this study is the “questionnaire”. Questionnaire according to Idowu (1983) in his book scientific journalism is “a set of questions on various aspects of a subject to which members of a population are expected to react”.
He further explained that “a questionnaire is an important instrument for obtaining information from people about their perception, attitude and behavior in a survey study”… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
This chapter embodies interpretations of data obtained from the research conducted. Tabulation/percentage will be used to present response on every question.
A total number of hundred (100) questionnaires were issued out and 92 were validly answered and returned by the respondents. This, 8 were missing and hence the analysis will be based on the 92 returned.
Do you have a TV set?
The above table shows that 85 respondents representing 92% own a television set while 7 respondents representing 8% don’t have a TV set. This shows that majority of residents of Calabar south LGA own a television.
Table 2: Do you watch NTA channel?
The 92 respondents representing 100% watch NTA channel. This implies that majority of the respondents watch NTA channel
Table 3: How often do you watch NTA programme?
The table above shows that 20 of the respondents representing 22% watch NTA programme very often 35 respondents representing 38% said often, 25 respondents representing 22% said sometimes while 12 respondents representing 13% were indicated. This shows that the majority of the respondents watch NTA programme oftenly.
Table 4: IS Television advertisement fully involved in Promoting Children’s educational development?
The table above shows that 60 respondents representing 65% agreed that Television advertisement is fully involved in children educational development, 10 respondents representing 11% said they are not while 22 respondents representing 24% were undecided. The above analysis implies that Television advertisement is fully involved in Children educational development… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
In View The Various Findings Of The Research, it is rational to conclude that
- Television advertisements playas a very important role in promoting the educational development of children among residents of Calabar South LGA… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
After taking a critical look at the findings from the research, the researcher, therefore, makes the following recommendations:
- Clinicians and Providers Educate
Parents about the subtle pervasiveness of marketing (particularly in new media settings) along with the negative effects of increased commercial exposure in children. Medical professionals should also strongly encourage parents to monitor their children’s exposure to marketing communication… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Abraham A. 1965 “The Role of the Media in Society” An Unpublished Paper Presented at the Liberal Arts Dept, Federal Polytechnic Bida. (Television Advertisements)
Abdullahi M. (2003) Current Trends in Mass Communication Illorin: Golden Mellenium Books. (Television Advertisements)
Curran J. (1979) Mass Communication and Society London Edward Anold Publisher Company. (Television Advertisements)
Jakande L. (1974) The Role of Mass Media in a Developing Society Ile-Ife. Obajemi Awolowo University Press. (Television Advertisements)
KAbir D.L (2009) Media, Children educational development and the Challenges of Democratic Governance in Nigeria. (Article Published on the Internet). (Television Advertisements)
Ladele L. et’al (1979) History of Nigerian Broadcasting Commission Ibadan University Press. (Television Advertisements)(Television Advertisements)
Sani B. (1998) The Role of Mass Media in National Development” A Conference Paper Delivered at the 2nd National Conference of Calabar south LGA Polytechnic. (Television Advertisements)(Television Advertisements)
Okokwo R.C (1979) Mass Media and Nation Building, Nsuka Institute of African Studio, University of Nigeria Press. (Television Advertisements)(Television Advertisements)
Uche. L.U (1983) Mass Media in Children educational development” (Article on Daily times Newspaper 16/6/1983). (Television Advertisements)(Television Advertisements)
(Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)