THE EFFECT OF POOR INFRASTRUCTURE ON student PERFORMANCE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF SECRETARIAL ADMINISTRATION.
1.1. The Study's Background
The significance of using instructional materials in promoting students' academic performance cannot be overstated. Junior secondary school teachers use instructional materials in their classroom instruction. Instructional materials, also known as teaching/learning materials, are any collection of materials that a teacher may use in teaching and learning situations to help achieve desired learning objectives.
Learning techniques should be used to change students' perceptions of learning. Subskills developed through instructional materials should serve as the foundation for more meaningful learning in order to develop or maintain one's specific skills. Teaching with instructional materials has been a part of education in Nigeria for many years. Despite the importance of social studies in national development and the efforts of stakeholders to encourage students to study the subject, students continue to perform poorly academically (Agbara, 2010).
Social studies is a school curriculum that focuses on social relationships and the functioning of society. Social studies prepares students to be active, responsible, and reflective members of society by providing relevant information and knowledge, skills, and attitudes. It assists students in understanding societal and global developments, as well as their roles in shaping the nation's future.
Social studies help students develop their thinking skills by evaluating decisions made by prominent leaders in the past, learning more about the successful and unsuccessful decisions made in the past. As a result, social studies is a very important curriculum for students because it is a study connected with all aspects of human beings to enable them to live a fulfilled, comfortable, and achievement-filled life.
However, it is disheartening to note that students' poor performance in social studies in junior secondary schools persists. According to Abdul Raheem (2011), the objectives of social studies have yet to be met due to poor teaching and a lack of adequate instructional materials to motivate students. Instructional materials are important and necessary tools for teaching and learning in order to increase teacher efficiency and improve student performance.
Education is one of the most important aspects of human life, especially in this modern era when employers inquire about educational qualifications obtained when applying for a job. For many years, Nigeria's educational system has been in crisis, ranging from the presence of unqualified teachers in the educational system to a lack of infrastructural facilities. A negative attitude of students toward learning is also a major cause.
According to (2011), some students purchase books but do not use them effectively. According to Ahmed (2003), most secondary schools in Nigeria have an unfavorable environment for teaching and learning, with limited access to necessary materials.
The Nigerian government has attempted to improve the quality of education in the country in a variety of ways, including the introduction of policies such as the Nigeria “National Policy on Education,” which was published in 1997 and revised in 1981 and 1990. The policy was revised to ensure that the educational sector supports the government's development goals.
The government has also recently taken initiatives to fund education. In 1996, the FGN/ODA Nigeria Community Education Programmes were launched. One of the initiatives' goals is to restructure educational funding arrangements. Alternative sources of education funding have been investigated. The Education Tax Fund was established by the government in 1995.
Another notable change has been the effort to update the curriculum; a committee for curriculum improvement has also been established. The Federal Ministry of Education's overall responsibility is to ensure systemic quality, to encourage and initiate innovations, and to ensure that schools adhere to minimum standards of acceptable educational practice. The National Commission for Colleges of Education was established in 1990 to establish minimum standards for all teacher education programs.
Many junior secondary schools in Nigeria have been deficient in their operations and overall effectiveness as a result of teacher and student problems. There is also the issue of not being adequately equipped to teach social studies. This issue affects both public and private educational institutions. While the public educational sector is plagued by mismanagement, several private schools, from primary to tertiary, fall short of expectations.
Every country strives to provide quality education for its citizens because the future of that country is heavily reliant on it. Nigeria's educational system is still plagued by numerous issues. Among the issues are student learning skills, parental background, peer influence, teacher quality, and learning infrastructure. The educational sector is in charge of several critical functions in any economy. To become one, various experts from various fields must go through the educational system.
Proficiency in social studies is critical to academic success. Students who study social studies must comprehend the concept. Conceptual learning, principles, and understanding in social studies are difficult for students to master, making them less motivated and interested in learning.
This flaw causes the student to perform poorly. It is disheartening that Nigerian students continue to perform poorly in social studies. This is especially true in the country's junior secondary schools. Although, it appears that the government has been experimenting with various methods to address the issue of low academic performance in secondary schools for some time.
One of the major causes of low academic performance in Nigerian junior secondary schools is a lack of effective teaching methodology. Most junior secondary school teachers in Nigeria teach their students without the use of instructional materials. These are especially relevant in public schools, where overcrowding and non-serious students are common.
Against this backdrop, the researcher examined the impact of instructional materials on the performance of junior secondary students in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state, Nigeria.
1.3. The study's objectives
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of instructional materials on the performance of junior secondary students in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state, Nigeria. The specific goals are as follows:
determine the level of academic performance of students in social studies in junior secondary schools in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state, Nigeria
investigate the impact of instructional material utilization on social studies teaching in junior secondary schools in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state, Nigeria
Determine measures for preventing poor academic performance in junior secondary schools in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state, Nigeria, using instructional materials.
1.4. Research Issues
The following research questions will guide this study:
What is the level of academic performance of students in social studies in junior secondary schools in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state, Nigeria?
What effect does instructional material use have on social studies teaching in junior secondary schools in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state, Nigeria?
What are the measures in place to prevent low academic performance in junior secondary schools in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state, Nigeria?
1.5 Research Proposal
The following hypothesis guides the research:
H0: There is no significant relationship between instructional material and academic performance of junior secondary school social studies students in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state, Nigeria.
1.6. Importance of the Research
It is stated that social studies, in particular, and the educational sector in general, are critical to the success or growth of any economy, because social studies prepare students to grow up as active, responsible, and reflective members of society. This study is being conducted empirically to investigate the effect of instructional materials on the performance of social studies students in junior secondary schools in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria, in order to alleviate problems and propose solutions.
This study will be important to the nation's academic sector because it will help guide the boards in charge of school management on how it can and should operate. It will teach it the value of social studies in the context of the country.
This study will be critical for investors, the government, and researchers because it will provide policy recommendations to various Nigeria stakeholders in order for them to take appropriate measures in the educational sector. It is hoped that the exploration of secondary schools will provide investors and the government with a comprehensive understanding of how the educational system operates. It will add to the existing literature on the subject by empirically investigating the role of instructional materials in academic success. This research will be useful to;
The Academia: Members of academia will find the study useful because it will serve as a foundation for future research as well as a reference tool for academic works.
Government: The findings of this study will be shared with the government. Policy formulation and implementation based on these findings would ensure the sector's development.
Investors: This study will be useful to investors, particularly those with a research interest, as it will guide their private investment decisions.
This study will, in the end, enlighten the educational sector's board of directors on the significance of social studies.
1.7. The Study's Scope
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of instructional materials on the performance of social studies students in junior secondary schools in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state, Nigeria, using some selected secondary schools.
1.8. Operational Terminology Definition
The following terms have been operationally defined.
Social studies is a component of the school curriculum that focuses on the study of social relationships and the functioning of society.
Instructional materials are human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to facilitate, encourage, improve, and promote teaching and learning activities.
Secondary school: a school that serves as a bridge between elementary and secondary school, typically offering general, technical, vocational, or college preparatory courses.
Effect: a change that occurs as a result of an action or other cause. Something that happens as a result of an incident.
Academic performance: the extent to which a student, teacher, or institution met their short or long-term educational objectives.
Academic achievement: the ability to succeed in school.
1.9. The Study's Organization
This research is organized into five chapters. The first chapter is an introduction, which includes the study's background, problem statement, research questions, research hypotheses, objectives of the study, the significance of the study, the scope and limitations of the study, and finally the study's organization.
The second chapter is a review of the literature, which includes conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, and a theoretical framework. The third chapter discusses research methodology, which includes research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, and instrument validity/reliability.
The fourth chapter is devoted to data presentation and analysis, as well as a discussion of the findings. The summary, conclusion, and recommendations are presented in Chapter 5.
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THE EFFECT OF POOR INFRASTRUCTURE ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF SECRETARIAL ADMINISTRATION.