Project Materials






This research looked into the Implications of Examination Malpractice in National Development: (A case of kano state). The study’s total population is 200 staff members from selected secondary schools in Kano state. The researcher collected data using questionnaires as the instrument.

Descriptive This study used a survey research design. The study included 133 respondents who were made principals, vice principals, administration, senior staff, and junior staff. The collected data was organized into tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.

chapter One


1.1The Study’s Background

The issue of national development has been a major source of concern for both the government and individuals. Different approaches have been used to address national development. The question has been raised as to how Nigeria will achieve the desired growth and development. Against this backdrop, education holds a prominent position and is of great interest.

Similarly, the National Policy on Education (2004) stated unequivocally that education in Nigeria is a premier tool for achieving national development. It has also been seriously argued that no nation can rise above the level of its educational system. This means that in any society, the level and quality of education determines the level and quality of development (Onwe, Opa and Ugadu 2013).

Formal or informal education is possible. Formal education takes place in a structured environment with the explicit goal of teaching students. Formal education is typically provided in a school setting, with classrooms of multiple students learning alongside a trained, certified teacher of the subject.

While informal learning occurs in a variety of settings, including after-school programs, community centers, and even village squares. Informal learning does not adhere to a set curriculum and may arise accidentally, sporadically, in conjunction with specific events, or from changing practical requirements.

It is not necessarily intended to be pedagogically conscious, systematic, or subject-based, but rather unconsciously incidental, holistically problem-oriented, and related to situation management and life fitness. Teaching and learning were primarily practical in the traditional African educational system. The students learned orally and by closely observing their master.

Since the society was interested in skill acquisition and practical demonstration of the arts learned, no certificate was issued to prove completion of course of study. There was no need for certification because education was viewed as a means to an end rather than an end in itself (Akaranga & Ongong, 2013). Certificates are used to assess the western knowledge acquisition system or formal education.

However, a certificate is not a complete proof of knowledge retention. Before receiving a certificate, students must be assessed or examined in the field in which they have been trained. According to Nnam and Inah (2015), examination is a yardstick against which students’ or candidates’ competence and progress in the education sector are formally measured and appraised.

According to Emaikwu (2012), examination in education is used to determine a learner’s level of skill acquisition or intellectual competence and understanding following a given training. As feedback, evaluation usually enables the teacher to be effectively prepared for further teaching. According to George and Ukpong (2013), examination is the most common tool around which the entire educational system revolves; it is the instrument used to determine who is permitted to advance to the next academic level.

According to Malik and Shah (1998), as cited in Akaranga and Ongong (2013), examination is not only a process of assessing students’ progress, but it also motivates and helps them to understand their academic strengths and weaknesses, as well as providing teachers with opportunities to try new methods of teaching. However, if the examination is not carried out properly, the expected feedback may not be obtained.

As a result, the outcome of such evaluation leads to incorrect decisions and judgments that affect the teacher, the learner, the entire education industry, and society (Ojonemi et al., 2013). When there is an irregularity or malpractice in the examination, the validity and outcome are called into question.

The widespread belief that certificates are the only yardstick by which to measure one’s qualifications has led many Nigerians to purchase educational certificates in order to demonstrate their academic worth. Examination malpractice in Nigeria predates the country itself. Examination malpractice was first reported in Nigeria in 1914, when the question papers for the Senior Cambridge Local Examinations were reportedly seen by candidates before the scheduled date of the examination (Anzene, 2014; Uzoigwe; Onuka & Amoo).

The Examination Malpractice Act (1999) defines examination malpractice as “any act of omission or commission by a person who fraudulently secures any unfair advantage for himself or any other person in such a manner that contravenes the rules and regulations to the extent of undermining the validity, reliability, authenticity of the examination and, ultimately, the integrity of the certificates issued” in anticipation of, before, during, or after any examination.

Examination malpractice is commonly defined as a deliberate violation of official examination rules intended to give a candidate an unfair advantage or disadvantage (Wilayat, 2009 quoted in Akaranga & Ongong, 2013). According to Alutu and Aluede (2006), as cited in Jimoh (2009), examination malpractice is any irregular behavior displayed by a candidate or anyone charged with the conduct of the examination prior to, during, or after the examination that violates the rules and regulations governing such examination.

Examination malpractice was defined by Onuka and Amusan (2008), as any dishonest or unauthorized action or deed committed by a student on his own or in collaboration with others such as fellow students, guardians, parents, teachers, head teacher, examination officials, supervisors, invigilators, security officers, and anyone or group of people before, during, or after examination in order to obtain undeserved marks or grades.

Statement Of The problem

All of the definitions agree that examination malpractice gives the perpetrators an unfair advantage or an undeserved grade. Again, it may be committed not only by candidates, but also by other bodies charged with examination management. Exam malpractice has undoubtedly been a social issue for decades, but the rate and manner with which it is being perpetrated today is cause for serious concern.

The prevalence of this crime has grown to the point where there is virtually no examination at any level or outside the formal school system, implying that there is no one form of illegal practice or another (Nnam & Inah, 2015; Ojonemi et al., 2013).

Examination malpractices are common throughout the world, and each exam season sees the emergence of new and inventive methods of cheating (Nnam &Inah, 2015; Anzene, 2014; Ojonemi et al., 2013; Jimoh, 2009).

The study’s objective

The study’s objectives are as follows:

To investigate the link between examination malpractice and national development.
Examinable causes of examination malpractice
to determine the impact of exam malpractice on national development
Hypotheses for research

The researcher developed the following research hypotheses in order to successfully complete the study:

H0: There is no link between exam malpractice and national development.

H1: A link exists between examination malpractice and national development.

H02: There are no Factors to blame for exam malpractice.

H2: There are factors that contribute to exam malpractice.

The study’s importance

It was hoped that the study’s findings would generate data that policymakers and examining bodies could use to supplement the existing body of knowledge in order to reduce Examination Malpractices. It would also help to boost confidence in our educational system by producing graduates of substance who will effectively contribute to our country’s economic development.


The study’s scope and limitations

The study’s scope includes Implications of examination malpractice in national development (A case study of Kano state). The researcher comes across a constraint that limits the scope of the study;

a) RESEARCH MATERIAL AVAILABILITY: The researcher’s research material is insufficient, limiting the scope of the study.
b) TIME: The study’s time frame does not allow for broader coverage because the researcher must balance other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited access to the chosen auditing firm makes obtaining all necessary and required information about the activities difficult.


The following are the definitions of the terms used in this study:

Anomie A society’s lack of purpose, identity, or ethical values. It also implies rootlessness (Collins Concise Dictionary, 1978).


Decadence A process, condition, or period of moral decline, deterioration, or decay. Collins Concise Dictionary (Collins, 1978)

Malpractice in Examinations An illegal act committed before, during, or after examinations by a student, teacher, invigilator, supervisor, school administrator, parent, or any public officer in order for the pupil to be awarded undeserved marks. (Chapi, 2011)

Expedient suited to the situation; convenient; based on what is useful or advantageous rather than what is right or just; self-interest Collins Concise Dictionary (Collins, 1978)

Managing To direct or control the use of something; to bring something under control; to efficiently handle something.

Mercenaries are individuals who engage in examination malpractice for monetary gain.


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