Project Materials






This study looked at the managerial styles of public and private secondary schools. The study’s total population is 200 staff members from chosen secondary schools in Uyo. The researcher collected data using questionnaires as the instrument. This study used a descriptive survey research approach.

The study included 133 respondents who were made principals, vice principals adm, teachers, and junior employees. The acquired data was organized into tables and evaluated using simple percentages and frequencies.


chapter One


The study’s context
The government took over administration of schools from missionaries shortly after the Nigeria civil war (1966-1970). Beginning with that time period, the government assumed complete responsibility for secondary education financing, infrastructure provision, classroom construction and rehabilitation, teaching-learning aids provision, and school staff recruitment.

At a time when the federal government found it impossible to fund both primary and secondary school operations, the federal government welcomed voluntary agencies, communities, and private individuals to assist in the establishment and management of secondary schools in addition to those provided by the federal and state governments (Okonkwo, Achunine and Anukam, 1991)

Following the federal government’s approval to construct schools, private individuals and communities set about establishing elementary and secondary schools. Private persons acquired entire responsibility for supplying financing, infrastructure, teaching-learning aids, hiring, promoting, and disciplining teaching staff, as well as good school administration and management that results in high-quality education.

Public education is defined as education offered via the medium of public schools (Okafor, 1984). In modern parlance, public schools are institutions that are controlled not by individuals or private organizations, but by people who represent the state or nation as a whole.

In other terms, public schools are those that are financed and regulated by the state or national government. Private education, on the other hand, is defined as formal education provided by an organization or entity other than the state. As a result, schools created by the church, individuals, and charitable organizations fall under this category.

The quality of leadership or management is thought to be critical to the proper operation of any social institution, from the home to the school and the nation as a whole. Furthermore, the success of any organization, official or informal, is dependent on the leadership or management styles used by the leaders. Thus, in order to successfully operate an organization, a leader may, among other things, choose a specific leadership style or combine many styles to help him reach the business’s goals and objectives.

Private schools appear to be more authoritarian in their leadership styles, whilst public schools appear to be more laissez faire. Furthermore, private school principals outperform public school principals in terms of human relation patterns, decision-making patterns, supervision, and communication patterns. The impact of various leadership styles can be seen in the institution’s organizational atmosphere.

This manifests itself in the way students behave and their attitudes toward studying and other school activities. Also, the effectiveness of the teacher. Effective instructors may be made ineffective if the headmaster’s leadership style conflicts with the teacher’s role and performance. A teacher who is ineffective could also be made effective if the principal’s leadership style is deemed appropriate.

Principals should prioritize teamwork as one of their primary tactics for being good school administrators. Teamwork requires them becoming team members, so they must also be good team players. This can be accomplished by establishing committees in the school to research and assess the techniques in order to determine whether the tactics are being applied in both private and public secondary schools.

It is critical that school success be attributed to the person in charge, who in a school setting is the principal. As a result, proper execution of management responsibilities assigned to administrators is critical to achieving high academic performance in public secondary schools. This reinforces the concept that appropriate organization by the principal and effective management is a crucial determinant in academic progress.

There is a distinction between leaders and managers, according to Bass (1990). According to him, leaders inspire others, provide emotional support, and aim to mobilize personnel around a shared purpose, whereas managers often undertake responsibilities related to planning, research, organizing, and control. They also develop an organization’s vision and strategic plan.

This indicates that the principals’ administration is critical, especially when it comes to student instruction. The management styles of principals are critical, as the management style they deploy will have a significant impact on whether or not the school system performs effectively.

This focuses our investigation. According to Nasongo and Lydia (2009), something is wrong in terms of teachers’ competency and instructional matters, and only principals with good management styles will be able to remedy the situation.

Problem identification

There have been reports of falling educational standards in Nigeria after the government took over school administration. According to Okonkwo, Achunine, and Anukam (1991), this lowered standard reveals itself in students’ and learners’ diminishing academic performance, indiscipline, and moral laxity.

Continuing, Okonkwo et al. (1991) opined that the causes of Nigeria’s falling educational standard have been attributed to poor management styles of institution heads, inadequate government funding of education, insufficient manpower, inability to develop a functional school curriculum to meet the social needs and aspirations of the recipients, and teachers’ ineffectiveness, among others.

Among these, the poor leadership style of the heads has been the key reason of the deteriorating standard of education, something that this study will investigate. The issues are: what management methods do principals of public and private schools use? What are the differences in management styles between public and private secondary schools? Finally, how have these management styles affected educational standards in Nigeria?

The study’s objective

The study’s aims are as follows:

Discover the management decision-making pattern in public and private secondary schools.
Determine the management human relation pattern in public and private secondary schools.
Determine the management communication pattern in public and private secondary schools.
Hypotheses for research

The researcher developed the following research hypotheses in order to successfully complete the study:

H0: There is no management decision-making structure in public and private secondary schools.

H1: There is a management decision-making structure in both public and private secondary schools.

H02: There is no management communication pattern in public and private secondary schools.

H2: Management communication patterns exist in both public and private secondary schools.

The study’s importance

This study is significant because its findings would suggest the specific leadership style of headmasters that encourages the highest performance of pupils and teachers. This knowledge is beneficial to principals because it allows them to implement the most effective leadership style for sensitizing teachers’ work efficiency. Only via this act will a high standard of education be reached.

This research will assist the State Secondary Education Board in appointing headmasters with appropriate leadership traits to run schools. Furthermore, the study will assist any future researcher and anyone who is interested in the managerial styles of school administrators to conduct additional research on the ideas offered.


The study’s scope and limitations

The study’s focus includes managerial techniques in both public and private secondary schools. The researcher comes upon a constraint that limits the scope of the investigation;

a) RESEARCH MATERIAL AVAILABILITY: The researcher’s research material is insufficient, restricting the scope of the investigation.
b) TIME: The study’s time frame does not allow for broader coverage because the researcher must balance other academic activities and examinations with the study.

Principals’ managerial styles: The principal’s pattern or way of doing things in the performance of his or her tasks. Leadership styles are examined in this study in terms of how administrators involve teachers in decision-making, how they communicate, and how they distribute work to teachers. The way principals act in terms of decision-making, communication, and delegating is thought to influence teachers’ performance in secondary schools.

Teachers’ performance: This refers to an individual’s identification with and involvement in the teaching profession. Teachers’ performance was defined in this study as the act of strategizing, lesson planning, and assessing pupils through the administration of examinations, exercises, and involvement in school co-curricular activities.



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