THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL strategy IN INCORPORATING LOCAL practices ON secondary SCHOOL STUDENT INTEREST AND achievement IN CHEMISTRY
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Chemistry is the scientific discipline that investigates the structure and composition of matter. Chemistry is frequently referred to as the central science due to the fact that its study provides a firm basis for the scientific and technological development of a young learner in the sciences.
While emphasizing the importance of chemistry education, Oriaifo (2002) noted that chemistry equips the learner with specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes that enable him/her to become useful to him/herself and the society at large.
In Nigeria, chemistry as a subject occupies a prominent position in the secondary and tertiary curricula. A passing grade in chemistry is required for students to continue their study in professions like as Medicine, Pharmacy, Agriculture, Engineering, Home Economics, Biological Science, and other science-related disciplines at the secondary level.
Chemistry does not begin and end in the classroom or school, as is commonly believed; chemistry phenomena are practiced in our daily life outside of school. Some home chemistry practices include the heating (cooking/warming) of our food, the washing of our clothes with soap or detergents, the addition of limestone when cooking (e.g., beans, unripe plantain, etc.), the boiling of ground fresh tomato to allow the liquid to evaporate, the addition of salt to perishable food items in order to preserve them, the boiling and filtering of impure water in order to make it safe for drinking, and the process of putting stainless stell into This demonstrates that chemical principles are utilized in our daily lives, including in our homes.
These ideas are not limited to our metropolitan areas; chemistry is also practiced in our rural communities. For instance, in the majority of villages, local soap is created from the ashes of burnt plantain peels and used (or bleached) palm oil.
Quality drinking water has long been an issue in our local communities, thus residents in rural areas typically use alum to cleanse their drinking water.
Despite the subject's everyday relevance and despite the subject's importance, students' performance has been weak and unsatisfactory for years (Inomiesa and Unuero, 2003; Udo, 2008; WAEC Chief Examiners report 2007,2008, 2009 and 2010; Ogbu, 2012; Omoifo 2012).
WAEC,2009 revealed that weaknesses associated with the performance of candidates in chemistry were attributed to lack of relevant textbooks, inadequate preparation for examination, and non-familiarity with examination syllabus, which was in essence attributed to the wrong way and manner teachers teach chemistry, that the teachings did not stimulate and sustain students' interest in chemistry (Njoku, 2007).
According to Asiyai (2005), teachers have used various teaching methods such as discussion, questioning, guided discovery, expository, etc. to improve students' performance in external examinations such as the West African Examination Council (WAEC) and the National Examination Council (NECO), but these methods have not produced the expected results.
These teaching methods include the conventional lecture method, which is predominantly used in most Nigerian secondary schools due to the fact that most of the schools are overpopulated and the chemistry classes are overcrowded, the chemistry syllabus is extensive, and the teaching time is frequently too short in comparison to the chemistry scheme.
However, these methods have been unable to improve the poor performance in chemistry (Adesida,Agbaji, Atere-Roberts, Bello, Dakare, Ihuoma, Kashim, Okonkwo, Otegbeye & Yabaya, 2002).
If there is to be a significant increase in the teaching and learning of chemistry, interest is crucial.
According to Graber (2011), Piaget viewed interest as a determining aspect in the learning process in 1974. He defined interest as the dynamics of assimilation, and he believed that every balancing process was based on interest.
Along with numerous other authors, I feel that creating an interest in a topic is an essential prerequisite for self-directed learning and an essential objective for school learning in terms of lifelong learning, out-of-school behavior, and career choice. Since 1965, the modern pedagogy of Herbarta has highlighted the importance of interest not just as a tool, but also as an educational aim in and of itself.
Modern interest research has confirmed Herbarta€TMs theory, demonstrating that interest-based motivation to learn has a positive effect on both the studying process and the quantity and quality of learning outcomes (Hidi, Renninger, & Krapp, 2004).
Due to the steady decline in interest in chemistry and the sciences, enrollment in science courses in general and chemistry courses in particular has decreased. According to Omoifo (2012), enrollment in science and technology education is low.
Why is there such a high incidence of bad performance in chemistry? Why are students so disinterested in chemistry? Is it true that chemistry experiments can be performed at home? Does chemistry extend beyond the boundaries of schools? Do the pupils realize that the chemical term for the process of heating (cooking/warming) our beloved bean cake (i.emoi-moi, a common African delicacy) is water-bath?
Do the students realize that the warmth they experience when adding detergents to a little amount of water is evidence of an exothermic interaction between the water molecules and the detergent? Are the pupils aware that the addition of limestone when cooking (e.g., beans, unripe plantain, etc.) increases the velocity of the chemical reaction?
Are the students aware that the process of boiling finely ground fresh tomato to allow the liquid to evaporate, leaving only the tomato, is an example of an evaporation process in chemistry? Do the pupils realize that adding a stainless steel spoon or nail to boiling meat accelerates the reaction and that the stainless steel spoon or nail works as a catalyst?
Are the kids aware that the fermentation process used to make our African delicacy fufu from cassava involves a chemical reaction? Students are aware that the burning of substances in the presence of air (oxygen) is also a chemical event known as combustion?
Are the pupils aware that the oxidation of a clean nail when exposed to air and water is an example of a chemical transformation? These are only a few examples of how kids' home chemistry (i.e., local practice) is related to their school chemistry. This demonstrates that chemical principles are utilized in our daily lives, including in our homes. Therefore, will adopting local methods increase students' chemistry interest and performance?
Statement of the Issue
A review of science education literatures over the past two decades and summaries of chief examiners' reports on findings by external examination bodies, such as the West African Examination Council (WAEC), show that the teaching and learning process of chemistry is not functioning optimally.
As a topic, pupils' chemistry proficiency is deteriorating.
On average, more than forty percent of senior secondary school pupils who took chemistry exams fail. Inadequate performance as reported by WACE is mirrored by results from the National Examination Council (NECO) (Omoifo, 2012).
The low enrollment in chemistry and related courses is a clear indicator of a significant lack of enthusiasm. Due to the fact that chemistry concepts are applied in our day-to-day human activities and its uniqueness in the field of science, students should have a strong interest in the subject and enrollment should be high.
However, enrollment in the subject has been low over the years, showing a major decline in interest. Also concerning is the failure of pupils to apply chemistry lectures to local practices in their daily lives. Will adopting local methods increase students' chemistry interest and performance?
Consequently, this study is an attempt to combine local practices (chemistry at home) into school-based chemistry instruction.
These research questions will serve as the basis for the study:
Will there be a difference between the achievement of students taught chemistry with the incorporation of local practices (experimental group) and those taught chemistry without the incorporation of local practices (control group)?
Will there be a difference in the level of interest between students taught chemistry with the incorporation of local practices (experimental group) and those taught chemistry without the incorporation of local practices (control group)?
Will there be a gender disparity in the success of implementing local practices?
Exists a gender difference in the desire to incorporate local practices?
The following hypotheses will be evaluated at a significance level of 0.05.
Students taught chemistry by incorporating local practices (experimental group) and students taught chemistry without local practices (control group) achieve similarly (control group).
There is no significant difference in interest between pupils taught chemistry with local practices (experimental group) and those without local practices (control group) (control group).
There is no substantial difference in achievement between male and female chemistry students taught using local approaches.
There is no substantial variation in gender interest among students who are taught chemistry using local approaches.
Object of the Study
This paper seeks to determine the effect of teaching method in cooperating local practices on chemistry interest and achievement. To achieve this stated objective, the article will focus on the necessity to ignite, stimulate, and maintain students' interest in the subject matter. It will also evaluate the influence of gender and home environment on the academic performance of pupils in regard to their attitude and perception of the subject.
Importance of the Research
The significance of the study's findings will be demonstrated in the following ways:
This study will guide and direct the chemistry teacher in the preparation of the lesson plan, ensuring the inclusion of instructional skills/materials that relate to students' local practice and home environment in order to ignite, stimulate, sustain, and develop students' interest, thereby increasing their achievement in chemistry in particular and sciences in general.
It will demonstrate to the teachers the necessity of improvising educational strategies that tie chemistry to the kids' home environments.
The study will be of great value to chemistry students because it will show them that chemistry phenomena in their lessons are similar to those in their local environment. This will foster a genuine interest in chemistry classes, allowing students to retain what they have learned more effectively and improve their academic performance.
The findings of this study will make it more important than ever for curriculum designers to specify proper instructional tactics for raising students' engagement and making the subject student-centered. In turn, this will encourage teachers and students to become interested in chemistry classes.
If the issue of poor student performance in chemistry and the sciences in general is to be addressed comprehensively, the findings of this study will offer a distinct perspective to the government and non-governmental organizations. In order for the nation to move to a higher level in science and technology, it will emphasize the need of conducting policies, seminars, lectures, and workshops focused at developing/improving students' interest in chemistry.
The findings of this study will serve as a source of methodology, materials, and references for comparable future studies.
Scope and Boundaries
The term a€oeclassa€ as employed in this study refers to both secondary school theory classes and laboratory classes. Consequently, the focus of the present study will be limited to chemistry as taught to secondary school pupils.
This study will be conducted in Yenagoa Local Government Area, one of Bayelsa State's eight Local Government Areas. This local government is selected because, as the state's capital, it contains the most secondary schools. Senior Secondary II (SSII) chemistry lessons are of interest.
The scope of this study will be limited to chemistry in the sophomore year. Topical progression from week two to week five.
THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY IN INCORPORATING LOCAL PRACTICES ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT INTEREST AND ACHIEVEMENT IN CHEMISTRY
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