Project Materials





As a mortal being, man is prone to several ailments that might quickly bring him to his death. To provide comfort and increase his chances of survival, man must work diligently to supply his fundamental necessities such as food, shelter, and clothing.
What is labour?
According to the Oxford Dictionary, work is the application of physical and mental strength in order to accomplish something. Different individuals around the world have different attitudes and preferences toward work. We cannot all do the same work. Each of us has his or her own interest, ability, personality, aptitude, etc. to choose the job that fits him or her best. This is known as a career decision.
This study aims to validate Ginzbergs theory of career development among undergraduates at the University of Benin. Ginzbergs theory of career development and choice was a study conducted in 1962 by a group of four speculators led by Eli Ginzbergs. They studied the process of career development of every individual from childhood to their early 20s and came up with various findings (Detail in Chapter two).
This study is extremely relevant because the majority of individuals nowadays do not have a known job choice, and some of those who are perceived to have alternatives, particularly from an educational standpoint, have made the incorrect decision. This phenomenon is impacting the nation’s economic and technical development.
Among the issues that may develop as a result of a poor career decision are the following:

Unemployment and unstable work.
Lack of job-searching skills and simple access to information about available positions.
Difficulty to deal with the actual demands of the job, as well as poor work habits, inability to accept supervision, and inability to get along with coworkers.
Reductions in force due to incompetence and inefficiency.
It is common to find graduates of physics or agricultural science working in financial houses. Lawyers are appointed commissioners of education, finance, and power, etc.
People are climbing and descending the occupational ladder. Some individuals have lost locus of control in their life careers.
There are tales of armed robbery, kidnapping, youth militancy and restlessness, religious intolerance, and prostitution, among others, as a means of subsistence.
Many more eked out a living by engaging in menial activities such as street peddling, truck pushing, and other non-formal occupations.
Many more are skilled at begging for arms, whereas others who lacked common sense and begging abilities wandered aimlessly and survived mainly on table scraps and garbage.
Many undergraduates struggle with career uncertainty in the university setting.

The problem is not a lack of options, but rather an abundance of options. There are so many choices, so many opportunities, so many directions that bewilder and distract young people. No sooner have they shown a passive interest in one area than they are encouraged to make it their life career. Many young people today make choices that are not suited to their personal characteristics and aspirations because of their inadequate orientation.
Sanra (1995) postulated that, if society is not to be plagued by a group of dissatisfied, frustrated, and unrealistic individuals, it is desirable that career information be provided to enable the youths to make a realistic choice, taking into account their own limitations, the available opportunities, and the social expectations of the community.

In support, Okorodudu (2006) said that the counselor would now help children acquire diverse occupational skills with the assistance of parents and teachers. They will be able to match these skills with the aptitude, attitude, interest, and ability of children in the school system. This will afford children the opportunity to develop vocational and technology skills congruent with their personality characteristics.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Each of us has his or her own interest, ability, personality, aptitude, etc., to choose the job that will fit him or her best. This is known as career choice. Oftentimes, university undergraduates are faced with problems of career choice.
Consequently, the purpose of this study is to determine the career development stages of University of Benin students in relation to Ginzberg’s theory of career development.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The goal of this research is to validate Ginzberg’s hypothesis of career development among undergraduates at the University of Benin.

1.4 Significance of the Research
The purpose of this study is to validate or investigate the levels of undergraduate career development at the University of Benin in accordance with Ginzberg’s theory of career development in order to uphold the veracity of Ginzberg’s postulations. The results of this study will serve as career guidance for students, parents, and educators, and will minimize the problems of poor career choice among the would-be labor force.
1.5 Research Concerns
1. What is the level of career growth among University of Benin students?
2. Existe-t-il une connection entre les résultats obtenus by undergraduates from the University of Benin and Ginzberg’s findings?
3. Is there any environmental impact on vocation selection?
4. To what extent does the socioeconomic situation of the students impact their career goals?
5. Do gender differences impact career decision making and selection?
Does career advice influence the selection of a profession?

1.6 Research Hypotheses
There is no substantial difference between Ginzberg’s career development phases and the degree of career development of University of Benin undergraduates.
There is no substantial difference between Ginzberg’s findings and those of undergraduates from the University of Benin.
1.7  The Range and Boundaries of the Study
Due to a shortage of funding, this study is limited to undergraduates at the University of Benin, who represent a representative sample of all other undergraduates at universities around the country.
1.8 Explanation of Terms
Certain terms have been used in various contexts during the development of this project; therefore, their meanings are provided.
Validation: To explore or evaluate the veracity and usefulness of an instrument.
Career: Career is a lifelong career that a person selects, plans for, enters, and advances in.
Theory: A theory is a set of assumptions aimed to explain and forecast a phenomenon; opens for further inquiry and the results can be utilized to expand knowledge and offer basis for making decisions (Onoyase, 2007). (Onoyase, 2007).




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