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The researcher attempts to demonstrate neo-colonialism as a practise in Nigeria from independence to the present day in the work “The Concept of Neo-Colonialism in Joy Chinwokwu Clouds at Sunrise and After Midnight”: the negative effect of neo-colonialist powers in all sectors of the economy in the country as well as in the lives of the citizens.

As a result, a putative solution to Nigerians’ dilemma is presented. This work is divided into five chapters, the first of which contains the introduction, problem statement, purpose of the study, scope of the investigation, significance of the study, and research methods.

The second chapter provides an overview of some additional African writers and their works. In Joy Chinwokwu’s Cloud at Sunrise, chapter three is about the concept of neocolonialism.

The fourth chapter examines the concept of neo colonalism in Joy Chinwokwu’s After Midnight. The work is summarised and concluded in Chapter 5.



Using the multiple perspectives of postcolonial and neocolonial studies, this thesis explores the traumatising impact of neocolonialist leadership on Africa and Africa’s creative authors, as a strand of the continent’s intellectual elite fighting for genuine independence.

It depicts the African writer as a regular place for the classless in postcolonialist Africans’ battle to gain true independence from the clutches of neocolonialist leadership. It further traces this schism to the realities of Western capitalism’s predatory dominance of Africa,

which began with the brutalising commodification of Africans as slaves, was followed by the arbitrary creation of unworkable states,

and has now reincarnated in neo-colonialism’s garb, and contends that the human race can achieve true and lasting peace and harmony only if Western capitalism and advances in science and technology are aligned with the pre-indust



The term “concept” dates back to 1550 – 1560 and is derived from the Latin word conceptum, which means “something conceived.”

However, the term “Concepts” is now employed in mainstream cognitive science and philosophy of mind. It is an abstract idea or mental symbol, sometimes characterised as a unit of knowledge, constructed from other units that serve as characterises for a concept.

It can also be defined as a general idea obtained or inferred from specific instances or happenings, as well as something generated in the mind, such as a thought or notion.


Neo-colonialism is a phrase that appears frequently in academic literature dealing with the history of the capitalist system, its spread, and current world affairs.

The word is drawn from a contrast made by V.I. Lenin in his pamphlet “Imperialism,” which was first published in 1939. His difference was between direct political dominance by use of armies and “extrapolitical dominance.”

The period from the commencement of the age of European discovery and expansion to the granting of freedom to former colonies was known as early colonialism.

It entailed imposing centralised political rule on non-western peoples through different forms of direct political pressure.

Neocolonialism is the continuous dominance of former colonies through non-political or commercial methods. In other words, while it is a continuation of the same process of exploitation and assimilation, it acts through economic pressure rather than military or legislative force.

Neocolonialism (which means “new colonialism”), on the other hand, is based not only on the continuous dominance of former colonies, but also within the colonies.

This is to claim that some Africans (namely, elite officials) impose or enforce dominance on their fellow Africans through controlling the country’s political and economic sectors.

Neocolonialist critics argue that multi-national businesses continue to exploit the resources of post-colonial regimes, and that the economic domination inherent in neocolonialism is analogous to the classical, European colonialism practised from the 16th through the 20th century.

In this view, neocolonialism indicates a sort of current economic imperialism, in which wealthy nations act like colonial powers of imperialism, and this behaviour is compared to colonialism in a postcolonial world.

Soon after the process of -decolonization, which followed a battle by numerous national independence movements in the colonies, the word Neocolonialism became widely used, notably in regard to Africa.

Following independence, certain national leaders and opposition parties claimed that their countries were subjected to a new type of colonialism conducted by former colonial powers and other industrialised nations, as well as totalitarian governments in the colonies.

Kwame Nkrumah, the newly independent Ghana’s leader in 1957, was one of the most noteworthy figures to utilise the word. In his book, Neo-Colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism, he provides a standard definition of the term.

According to Nkrumah in the book, “neocolonialism of today represents imperialism in its final and perhaps most dangerous stage.”

He goes on to claim that growth of less developed portions of the world and investment under neocolonialism widen rather than narrow the global divide between affluent and poor countries.

The fight against neocolonialism does not seek to exclude developed-country capital from working in less developed countries; rather, it seeks to prevent developed-country financial power from being used to impoverish the less developed.

Nkrumah’s book is self-described as an extension of Lenin’s imperialism; The Last Stage of Capitalism (1916), in which Lenin claims that “19th century imperialism is based on the needs of the capitalist system.”

Neo-colonialism, like colonialism, is an attempt to export capitalist countries’ social tensions. Che Guevara, Maxist Revolutionary, states in 1961,

The countries we call ‘underdeveloped’ are actually colonial, semi-colonial, or dependent. We are countries whose economies have been warped by imperialism, which has unnaturally developed those fields of industry or agriculture that are required to supplement its complex economy.

‘Underdevelopment,’ or distorted development, results in a dangerous specialisation in raw materials, which poses a threat to all of our peoples. We the ‘underdeveloped’ also have a single crop, a single product, and a single market.

A single product whose uncertain sale is contingent on a single market imposing and enforcing condition. That is the ultimate blueprint for imperialist economic dominance. (41)


Many Africans believe that the official end of colonial control did not result in an end to social inequality and severe economic imbalance. The argument is that colonisers sought indirect control over their colonised;

that instead of direct military political control, neocolonialist nations used economic, financial, and trade policies to subjugate less powerful countries. They maintain a presence in the economies, particularly in terms of raw commodities from former colonies.

Joy Chininwokwu’s works, in this setting, are dominated by a desire to clearly out what has been going on in her society in terms of neocolonialism. Joy Chinwokwu and other African writers submit to a critical analysis of post-colonial African communities, striving not to embellish or disparage them, but merely to describe a reality.


The primary goal of this research is to discover;

– To what extent have African writers, particularly Joy Chinwokwu, highlighted Africans’ difficulties in accordance with neocolonial powers?

– To what extent did these writers contribute to clarifying the concepts of neocolonialism and its harmful impact on Africans?

– To what extent have these writers attempted to modify Africans’ perceptions of neocolonialism, and how may this be resolved through the way they reconstruct experiences in their work?


The researcher will concentrate on the notion of neocolonialism as depicted in Joy Chinwokwu’s works, as well as the roles that each character plays in relation to neocolonialism. The initiative will offer light on the societal influence depicted in the two novels under consideration.


This research will be beneficial to society. This project’s preoccupation is to investigate the concept of neocolonialism, and in this regard, a critical investigation of the sociology of neocolonialism in Africa will be conducted.

The society will be made aware of the negative aspects and consequences of some of the policies pushed on it by neocolonialists in the guise of development. More specifically, to pursue absolute independence, not only from exterior neocolonialists, but also from within.


Joy Chinwokwu’s Clouds at Sunrise and After Midnight are the key data sources for this project. Other secondary sources include literature from the library, the internet, newspapers, and critical works on the subject.

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