# STUDENTS AND INSTRUCTORS CONCEPTION OF MATH

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## STUDENTS AND INSTRUCTORS CONCEPTION OF MATH

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Mathematics is defined by Odili (2006) as a body of knowledge, a collection of skills and methodologies, and a product of human effort for problem solving. Mathematics, according to the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2001), is the science of size and numbers (of which arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry, and geometry are branches).

According to the New Encyclopaedia Britannica, it is the science of structure, order, and relation that arose from basic practises of counting, measuring, and describing the shapes of objects. It is concerned with logical thinking and quantitative analysis? Mathematics is an important part of our educational system because it is used in all areas of human endeavour.

For example, from a social or economic standpoint, mathematics is a critical component of our daily lives that every human being engages in some way.

According to Kalu (1999), teaching is an activity that helps pupils or learners to learn and acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and disposition required to become functional members of society. Teaching, according to Bidwell (1993), is a series of interactions between the instructor and the learners with the stated objective of changing one or more of the learner’s cognitive or effective states.

As a result, mathematics teaching can be defined as the interaction between the instructor and the learners in order for the learners to acquire the aforementioned mathematical knowledge, abilities, and ideas required to become effective members of society. The attitude of teachers is important in secondary school mathematics teaching and learning.

Mathematics is regarded as one of the most challenging topics by both students and teachers due to the manner in which it has been handled and presented. This broad perception is the result of a variety of circumstances.
Mathematics learning is heavily influenced by how it is presented to the student.

Teachers’ attitudes towards teaching and learning mathematics have a substantial impact on students’ attitudes towards mathematics learning. Students’ favourable attitudes towards mathematics education can be influenced by teachers’ helpful behaviour, ingenuity, enthusiasms, good methods of presentation, concern for students, and teacher knowledge of the subject matter.

Teachers should have a positive attitude towards mathematics teaching on a regular basis since they serve as role models. The Mathematics teacher’s obligation ends when he has taught his students to understand the concepts and how to apply them in a variety of ways to solve daily arithmetic issues.

Finally, all education stakeholders should view seminars/workshops on good teacher disposition while teaching as crucial and urgent. Expectations from teachers. Teachers have varying perspectives on pupils’ prospects for success, cultural backgrounds, talents and shortcomings, and eventual location in society.

High expectations are praised as a cornerstone to successful teaching of students who are frequently underserved by education (Lipman, 1998; Zeichner, 1996). According to Zeichner (1996), high expectations are a necessary feature of classrooms that have the capacity to close the success gap in urban schools.

There is a growing consensus in the study literature on what instructors must be like, know, and be able to accomplish in order to teach all kids to high academic levels. This vision is based on teachers thinking that all children can learn and accepting responsibility for this work regardless of students’ socioeconomic status or skin colour. The assumption that all children can learn and the promotion of high expectations have entered mainstream educational discourse.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Mathematics is one of the topics that Nigerian students, particularly those in secondary school, detest and perform poorly in (Odili, 2006). However, students and the general public commonly ask, “How can the teaching and learning of mathematics in our secondary schools be improved as a tool for self-reliance?” Individuals are unequivocally blessed in different ways.

As a result, the way and manner in which people perceive issues differs. The attitude of teachers is important in secondary school mathematics teaching and learning. Mathematics is regarded as one of the most challenging topics by both students and teachers due to the manner in which it has been handled and presented. This broad perception is the result of a variety of circumstances.

Mathematics learning is heavily influenced by how it is presented to the student. Teachers’ attitudes towards teaching and learning mathematics have a substantial impact on students’ attitudes towards mathematics learning. Students’ favourable attitudes towards mathematics education can be influenced by teachers’ helpful behaviour, ingenuity, enthusiasms, good methods of presentation, concern for students, and teacher knowledge of the subject matter.

Although perceptions are subjective and idiosyncratic, they can offer teachers with useful information that can influence lesson preparation and decision making in the classroom. As a result, the study problem is to investigate students’ and teachers’ perceptions of mathematics.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1. Identify the nature of mathematical education.
2. To ascertain students’ and teachers’ perspectives on mathematics.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What exactly is Mathematics Education?
2. What are the characteristics of students’ and teachers’ perceptions of mathematics?

1.5 IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
The project will give a framework for resolving challenges influencing both the desirability and teaching of mathematics by students and teachers. It will also be a valuable resource for teachers, students, and education professionals.

1.6 HYPOTHESIS STATEMENT
1. Ho: Mathematics education is inadequate.
Hello: Mathematics education is excellent.
2. Ho: Students have an unfavourable perception of mathematics.
Hello: Students have a favourable attitude towards mathematics.
3. Ho: Mathematics is seen negatively by teachers.
Hello: Teachers have a favourable attitude towards maths.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research focuses on the evaluation of students’ and teachers’ conceptions of mathematics.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
MATHEMATICS EXPLAINED
Mathematics, according to Ezenweani (2006), is “the branch of knowledge that seeks to improve on human perception of himself and his immediate surroundings by using clear, logical precise, and exact thinking processes.” He also argued that mathematics is an autonomous science that develops in any direction based on the unfolding of knowledge.
DEFINITION OF LEARNING
Learning can be described as the acquisition of a cognitive, Meta cognitive structural repertoire. It also connects new information to previous knowledge and is goal-oriented.
DEFINED ATTITUDE
Within the context of social psychology, attitude is described as a subjective or mental preparation for action. Souza Barros and Marcos (2010) describe attitude as the outward and visible postures of human views. Each person’s attitude influences what they see, hear, think, and do. They define attitude as an individual’s prevailing tendency to respond favourably or unfavourably to an object.

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