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The Benue State Government should pass legislation prohibiting parents from encouraging their children to engage in street dealing or child work in the state.

Based on this finding, a conclusion was drawn and a recommendation was made that the F = 17.91(df = 1, 198; P.05), R2 = 0.80.., treet hawking and physical abuse have a significant joint influence on students’ academic performance in Makurdi LGA of Benue State, R2 = 0.83F = 13.89(df = 1, 198; P.05), and that s, physical abuse has a significant influence on students’ dropout rates.

The study used a descriptive research methodology, with 250 participants chosen at random using a simple random selection technique among senior secondary school students in Benue State’s Makurdi Local Government Area.

The findings verified several of the hypotheses, including the impact of street hawking and physical abuse on the academic achievement of secondary school students in Benue State’s Makurdi Local Government Area (LGA).The study’s goal was to look into



1.1 Background Of The Study

Education continues to be a powerful and dynamic tool for national development and social transformation, as well as a tool for measuring global development indicators.

Governments all around the world have made commitments to provide their populations with access to education in acknowledgment of this value. Because it is still the only way for any nation to expand and develop technically, as well as overcome poverty and other conditions linked with underdevelopment.

Humans engage in a vital task called learning. Children must learn in order to perform well in class; else, teaching would be futile. In this light, Zimmerman and Schunk (2001) demonstrated how children are taught and how learning is supposed to take place by employing three types of learning theories:

behaviourist, cognitive, and social learning theories. They find that mistreated children do not learn properly, and as a result, they frequently perform poorly in school.

Academic performance as a core goal of the educational system has become a cause of concern for researchers, particularly while student academic performance is dropping. Academic performance is defined or viewed as the examination grades of participants at the end of a specified time period (term, semester, or programme).

It could also be seen as a level of performance in a specific subject of study (Egbule, 2004:34). Similarly, Ricarda (2014) proposed that academic performance is an achievement result that demonstrates how far a student has progressed towards specified goals that were the focus of activities in instructional settings, specifically in school, college, and university.

Children who have been victims of one or more forms of physical abuse behave differently than other children in school, which has an impact on their academic achievement.

According to Shonk and Cicchetti (2001), physical abuse generally delays students’ academic progress because there is always a lack of trust in people because they have been disappointed and abused by those who should be a source of joy, trust, defence, and security to them, they believe nowhere is safe and no one can be trusted.

This causes emotional and physical pain, withdrawal from opposite sex, poor social relationships, anxiety, mental stress, depression, difficulty socialising, sadness, hooliganism, thuggery, rebelliousness, malnourishment, anger, scars on body parts, addictions, sexual difficulties, unhealthy appearance and clothing.

As a result of these characteristics, the child’s academic performance suffers as concentration becomes a challenge.

Street hawking is a method of selling items along a road from one location to another. It also encompasses, but is not limited to, campaigning for patronage of commodities and selling items carried by a hawker down the street, from home to house, or in public space (Ikechukwu Joe, 2008).

Researchers are becoming increasingly interested in the phenomenon of children street hawking or vending in developing cities and towns (Olutunde, 2013; Ugochukwu, Okeke, Onubogu, and Edokwe 2012), owing to the various health, social, and economic implications for the children who engage in such activities.

Developing cities and towns are experiencing exponential growth, leading to rural-urban migration in search of a better way of life (Hoyamo and Keenan, 2007). Furthermore, this encroaches on the few resources available in these cities.

Street hawking, regardless of who (age or gender) engages in it, is fraught with danger. Sexual assault exposes hawkers to diseases such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections, as well as an increased risk of unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, physical assaults, mobbing, involvement in road traffic accidents, kidnapping, and ritual killings (Lee, 2004; Lu, 2011).

Street hawking exposes people to more antisocial activities such as smoking, drug and alcohol misuse, cultism, and criminality. When children are engaged, they are deprived of schooling, develop poor habits, and are denied good health, all of which constitute child abuse (Ugochukwu et al., 2012; Amoo, Ola-David, Ogunrinola, and Fadayomi, 2012; Ekpenyong and Nkereuwuem, 2011).

The emergence of child hawking in Nigeria appears to have begun with the late 1980s implementation of an International Monetary Fund Structural Adjustment Plan (IMFSA), which resulted in currency depreciation, the withdrawal of subsidies on items such as fuel, water, and electricity, and job cuts (Olori, 2009).

As a result, many parents who are unable to pay their children’s school tuition withdraw them from the educational system. Some of these children worked as car washers, bus conductors, and street hawkers to assist their family make ends meet.

Children, they say, are the future of every nation, so proper care must be provided for them. UNICEF has recently placed a special emphasis on improving the welfare of children all across the world. The federal and state governments have established the Ministry of Women Affairs to develop policies that will benefit children.

Despite all of these efforts, most families are increasingly unconvinced about the importance of effective child rearing.

Many youngsters are observed physically beaten and hawking in main streets, highways, marketplaces, lanes, buses, and from home to house in Nigeria’s major cities and towns in order to contribute financially to their own and their families’ upkeep.

Children are gradually taking over mobile street selling, peddling in commercial buses, and protracted traffic jams in Benue State’s Makurdi Local Government.

According to several researchers, the reasons for the increase in this trend are that parents’ economic situation cannot keep their children in school, and that parents spend their little wages on food and transportation.

As a result, parents send their children to sell and beg without considering the impact such activities may have on their children’s academic performance as students (Shailong, Onuk, and Beshil, 2011).

Physical abuse has been a major health issue among youngsters in Benue State’s Makurdi Local Government. This phenomena not only has immediate implications, but also long-term consequences, and it places a significant load on any society in terms of prevention, treatment, policy development, and programme development (Norman, Byambaa, Butchart, and Scott, 2012).

Physical abuse is defined by the WHO (2006) as “the intentional use of physical force against a child that results in – or has a high likelihood of resulting in – harm to the child’s health, survival, development, or dignity.” This includes “hitting, kicking, shaking, biting, strangling, scalding, burning, poisoning, and suffocation.”

As a result, the purpose of this research is to determine the impact of street hawking and physical abuse on the academic performance of secondary school pupils in the Makurdi Local Government Area (LGA) in Benue State.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Without a doubt, one of the primary goals of Benue State’s secondary school education system is to develop high academic proficiency among students.

Thus, the ministry of education, schools, principals, instructors, counsellors, parents, and even students in Benue State’s Makurdi Local Government Area (LGA) all attest to the importance of academic success.

However, observations revealed that high academic accomplishment has become a herculean undertaking for secondary school students in Makurdi. Poor academic achievement has been the norm, with yearly reports at the junior and senior secondary school WASSCE levels.

This issue is not restricted to the secondary school education system or the Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State, since academic performance of pupils at all levels in Nigerian educational institutions has long been criticised by all and sundry.

Soyinka (1999) observed a deterioration in academic performance among students in Nigerian universities and proposed that the Nigerian university system be restructured.

He went on to claim that academic standards have plummeted and that the quality of graduates generated by the country’s universities is doubtful and needs to be re-examined. As a result, educationists, guidance counsellors, and counsellors have been concerned about pupils’ poor academic performance.

Despite school calls and strategies to improve pupils’ academic performance, the problem of poor academic accomplishment among secondary school students in Makurdi persists.

Following the findings under academic achievement and the stated goals of senior secondary school education, one wonders if the high rate of failure and poor academic performance by students in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State is not a reflection of the prevalence of street hawking and physical abuse suffered by many students in the area.

In this context, the purpose of this research is to determine the impact of street hawking and physical abuse on the academic performance of secondary school pupils in the Makurdi Local Government Area (LGA) in Benue State.

1.3 Aims and Objectives Of The Study

The overarching goal of this research is to investigate the impact of street hawking and physical abuse on academic performance of secondary school pupils in Makurdi. The precise goals are as follows:

a. To investigate the impact of street hawking on academic achievement among Makurdi pupils.

b. To investigate the impact of physical abuse on the educational outcomes of Makurdi students.

c. To analyse the combined impact of street hawking and physical abuse on secondary school pupils’ academic performance in Makurdi LGA, Benue State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will guide this:

a. How does street selling affect kids’ academic achievement in Makurdi?

b. To what extent does physical abuse affect Makurdi pupils’ educational outcomes?

c. What are the combined effects of street hawking and physical abuse on secondary school pupils’ academic achievement in Makurdi LGA, Benue State?

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