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1.0                                                   INTRODUCTION

The study of crude oil extraction in Anakpa crude oil bearing communities was undertaken to investigate qualitatively and quantitatively the impact of crude oil exploration and exploitation in the area. Anakpa is one of the crude oil-bearing communities in Uruan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Due to the discovery of crude oil in Anakpa in 1956 exploration and exploitation of crude oil was undertaken onshore by Shell Petum Development company (SPDC).  Anakpa crude oil wells Edik 1, Edik2, Ituk1, Ituk 2, AP 1 and AP 11 are under Oil specting Licence ( OPL) 231 (EIA,2014). OPL 231 is operated by Monipulo Petum Company Limited. Oil specting Licence (OPL) 231 shared common boundary with Oil Mineral Licence (OML) I3 and 14 operated by Mobil ducing Nigeria and Frontier Exploration Company respectively.  Oil specting Licence (OPL) 231 covered crude oil wells located in Uruan in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria as well as other wells located in Ikoneto in Cross River, Nigeria (EIA,2014). Under this concession Akwa Ibom State, have 98 % of total share while Cross River State had only 2 % of the total production capacity. Under Oil specting L 231 concession Monipulo in 2013 conducted crude oil wells reappraisal of Edik 1, Edik 2, Ituk 1 and Ituk 2 (EIA,2014). New crude oil wells discovered as results of seismic evaluation conducted by Monipulo were API 1 and API 11 by Monipulo Petum Company (EIA, 2014).

The extract from crude petum include other petum such as: liquefied petum gas (LPG), premium motor sprit (PMS), dual purpose kerosene (DPK), automotive gas oil (AGO), high power fuel oil (HLPF) and aviation turbine kerosene (ATK). These are very important natural resources, even though they are non-renewable (Abidemi, 2013).

Adewiuyi and Oluwa (2013) further stated that there are environmental consequences associated with crude oil extraction which were often underestimated. Okoro et al. (2011) noted that in crude oil production, exploration is the first phase of the search for hydrocarbon-bearing rock formations where geological maps are reviewed in desk studies to identify major sedimentary basins. As mentioned by Okoro et al. (2011) aerial photography may then be used to identify promising landscape formations such as faults or anticlines. Ahaneku and Sadiq (2014) stated that more detailed information is assembled using a field geological assessment, followed by one of these three main survey methods: Magnetic, gravimetric and seismic.Udoudoh (2011) also stated that the magnetic method depends upon measuring the variations in intensity of the magnetic field which reflects the magnetic character of the various rocks present, while the gravimetric method involves the measurements of small variations in the gravitational field at the surface of the earth. Akubugwu et al. (2011) further stated that measurements are made, on land and at sea, using either an aircraft or a survey ship respectively. According to Adekoya (1995) a seismic survey is the most common assessment method and is often the first field activity undertaken.

Adewiuyi and Oluwa (2013) further revealed that the seismic method is used for identifying geological structures and relies on the differing reflective properties of sound waves to various rock strata, beneath terrestrial or oceanic surfaces.As reported by Ackike et al. () at each point where different geological strata exist, a part of the energy is transmitted down to deeper layers within the earth, while the remainder is reflected to the surface. Here, it is picked up by a series of sensitive receivers called geophones or seismometers on land, or hydrophones submerged in water (Akpan, 2005). Special cables transmit the electrical signals received to a mobile laboratory, where they are amplified and filtered and then digitized and recorded on magnetic tapes for interpretation (Akpan, 2005). The use of dynamite has since been discontinued in view of negative environmental consequences associated with the use of dynamite in an environment (Akpan, 2005).




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