SEX EDUCATION KNOWLEDGE AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN A SELECTED SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN IRRUA, EDO STATE
The purpose of this study was to look into the attitudes of adolescents in Edo State about sex education. The study established four objectives, four research questions, and four null hypotheses. The study used a survey method with a population of 20,385 adolescents and a sample of 2,035 selected from the population using a multi-stage random sampling methodology.
The primary technique of data collection was through the use of a self-designed questionnaire with 25 items. To test the four null hypotheses, the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used. The study’s key findings were, among other things, that sex education was very popular among adolescents in Edo state, and that the rate of undesired pregnancies, changes in immoral behavior, and community dropout level had significantly decreased in Edo state.
Based on the key findings, the study recommended that parents be actively involved in discussing sex-related issues with their children, and that sex education be made mandatory for all adolescents at the secondary community level.
1.1 THE STUDY’S BACKGROUND
Teaching sex education has existed since man’s creation, since man continues to expand with offspring. Teachers, the media, parents, pastors, imams, and even friends have shirked their responsibility by failing to portray the many sides of the subject, the good, and the lies presented to exploit others.
A growing number of people across the ideological spectrum believe that our society is morally bankrupt. There are depressing signs everywhere. Family dissolution, erosion of civility in everyday life, widespread materialism, pervasive sexual behaviors at very young ages; massive betrayal of children through sexual abuse (Taku, 2009).
Individuals are educated on sexuality behavior through sex education. It is the process of learning about sex and developing attitudes and beliefs about it. It is education for education, particularly for our teens, on sex-related concerns. Sex education does not encourage early intercourse, but rather can delay first intercourse and lead to more consistent and knowledge of the notion.
It is the process of learning about sex, developing attitudes and beliefs about sex, sex identity, relationships, and intimacy. It entails enhancing young people’s abilities so that they can make educated decisions regarding their behavior. It is commonly agreed that young people have the right to sex education, in part because it helps them protect themselves against abuse, exploitation, unwanted pregnancies, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), as well as understand their body mechanisms in general (World Youth, 2000, in Nwahizu, 2006).
Sex and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) education based on a written curriculum and implemented among groups of adolescents in community settings is a promising type of intervention to reduce adolescent sexual risk behaviors, disease transmission, and other factors that put adolescents at risk of infectious diseases. However, not all young people attend community, and not all young people stay in community until they start having sex. As a result, it is equally critical to reach out to youth who are not part of the community.
Adolescents can be introduced to curriculum and group-based sex and HIV education programs to ensure completion and retention in communities. They have been used in youth-serving organizations, housing complexes, religion communities, community centers, juvenile detention centers, and other settings around the world. Notably, some sex and HIV education programs that have been shown to reduce sexual risk-taking behavior should be deployed in both community and community settings with just modest curriculum revisions.
(Jemmott, Jemmott, and McKaffree, 1994; St. Lawrence, 1994) (1998). Sex and HIV education programs can help people learn how to avoid HIV and STD infection, as well as accidental pregnancy.
The structuring of teaching material to interrelate or unify concepts that are commonly taught in separate academic courses or departments is known as integrated teaching. An integrated curriculum, according to Shoemaker (1989), is education that is designed in such a way that it crosses subject-matter lines, bringing together many components of the curriculum into meaningful association to focus on broad fields of study. It takes a holistic approach to learning and teaching and mimics the real world, which is interactive.
According to Shoemaker (1989), teaching with an integrated curriculum is an approach based on the assumption that learning is a sequence of connections. Teachers and teenagers can benefit from the integrated curriculum, which uses team teaching, projects, and units to cover a wide range of topics and effectively teach numerous concepts and skills. This method allows youngsters to learn in the most natural way for them.
Teachers can develop a large portion of their curriculum by creating webs made up of topics of interest to the youngsters, which benefits everyone. These advantages include increased curriculum coverage, the utilization of natural learning, the development of children’s interests, the teaching of skills in meaningful contexts, increased flexibility, and an organized planning device (Krogh, 1990).
Ongwu (2010) emphasized the importance of taking sexuality education seriously. Since our globe has become a global village, happenings in previously remote parts of the world are now having an instant influence on patterns of behavior in other parts, ensuring that every population is well informed and has developed the right behavior to cope with life. Peer group influence in sex issues and debate can have an impact on adolescents in communities.
1.2 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM
The researcher discovered that many Nigerian youngsters, particularly those in the country’s North Central zones, are victims of sexual molestation and other vices, and that some have left out owing to undesired pregnancies, stigma from Sexually Transmitted Diseases and illnesses (Edo State Ministry of Education Annual Report, 2010). This could be related to a lack of sex education in the Irrua Local Government Area.
However, sexual education is interwoven into other subjects such as Civic Education, Health Science, Home Economics, Home Management, and Biology. These have not been effective in preventing adolescent pregnancy, dropping out of school, and high rates of abortion.
To be more specific, there is no provision for sex education in core, prevocational, and non-vocational topics on the criteria list for junior secondary community syllabus in the National Policy on Education (2004). The implementation of sex education in communities will help to reduce social vices such as unwanted pregnancies, the spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), adolescent dropout, and the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, which is on the rise due to a lack of education.
There has been a tendency of everyday media programs that are laden with sexual subjects and images from which young teenagers learn and want to try with what they have seen without sufficient instruction. Children are increasingly turning to television, newspapers, and the internet to find sexually themed media. Frequently fail to deliver accurate information. This study will therefore look into how sex education in the Irrua Local Government Area can help to address these issues among the state’s teenagers.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The primary goal of the study was to analyze adolescents’ attitudes about sex education in Edo State.
THE STUDY’S SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES WERE TO: DETERMINE THE LEVEL OF ADOLESCENT SEX EDUCATION IN EDO
investigate the amount to which sex education has aided in the prevention of unwanted pregnancy, community dropout, moral behavior, and abortion among adolescents in Edo State
determine the effect of sex education on adolescents’ opinions, peer group influence, and moral behavior in the Irrua Local Government Area
to ascertain the effect of sex education on the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) among teenagers in Edo
1.4 QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH
This study is designed to solve the following research questions.
What is the sex education level of adolescents in Edo State?
In Irrua Local Government Area, how effective has sex education been in preventing adolescent pregnancy, community dropout, moral behavior, and abortion?
What effect does sex education have on adolescents’ opinions and peer group influence in the Irrua Local Government Area?
How has sex education aided in the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)?
1.5 THEORIES OF RESEARCH
At the 0.05 level of significance, the following null hypotheses were tested.
Ho1 There is no substantial association between male and female adolescents’ opinions on sex education among Edo State adolescents.
Ho2 In Edo State, there is no substantial association between sex education and the prevention of adolescent pregnancy, moral behavior, dropout, and abortion.
H03 There is no substantial association between the impact of sex education and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among adolescents in Edo state’s secondary communities.
1.6 THE STUDY’S SIGNIFICANCE
The study will be useful in the following ways:
If this thesis is published, the following people will benefit from it: community instructors, primary and secondary school teachers, teenagers, curriculum developers, and society.
Teachers shall teach adolescent sex education in their communities without fear or favor in order to improve young people’s knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding sex relationships and intimacy. It will assist the instructor in emphasizing the dangers of unsafe sexual behavior, such as unwanted pregnancies and (STDs).
It will also assist the subject teacher to develop lines of communication between teenagers and their teachers about the significance, importance, and possible values of sex in human life, so that adolescents can seek knowledge from credible sources rather than relying on rumor or misperception.
This will mostly be accomplished through workshops hosted by the ministry of education in partnership with other stakeholders in the state’s education of young girls and boys.
THE STUDY’S LIMITATIONS
The study looked at the impact of integrated sex education teaching on the moral behavior of adolescents in Edo State. The study focused on 411 public Irrua Local Government Area settlements and was confined to a sample of 40 communities. It was restricted to teenagers in eight Local Government Areas since these adolescents are more exposed to sexual temptation and have little or no knowledge of how to care for themselves when it comes to sex difficulties.
1.8 Terms Definition
Sex Education: Sex education is high-quality teaching and learning about a wide range of sex and sexuality themes, including exploring values and views about those topics and developing the skills needed to navigate relationships and manage one’s own sexual health.
Adolescence/adolescents: the era between childhood and adulthood, often lasting 10 to 24 years. Those aged 13 to 17 would be eligible for this study.
Reproductive health: the ability of the adolescent to have a safe reproductive development free of unwanted consequences such as pregnancy because they are well informed and thus able to make informed decisions about their sexuality.
Effectiveness refers to an intervention’s capacity to achieve its primary goal, which in this case is to minimize teen pregnancy.
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