THE IMPACT OF NATIONAL educational REFORM PROGRAMS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF secondary school SOCIAL studies CURRICULUM IN GHANA
1.1 The Study's Background
Ghana's educational system has experienced a series of modifications from the 1960s to the present in an effort to reorganize the sector's mission to meet the needs of the country. Such improvements have been made possible as a result of changes in education policy implemented by subsequent administrations. These changes appear to be the result of successive administrations' dissatisfaction with the inherited educational system, their desire to keep promises made in party manifestos, or the country's lack of a national education plan.
This has been demonstrated by the establishment of numerous reforms and review committees since the country's independence in March 1957. Since independence, Ghana's educational system has advanced substantially. The existing educational environment in Ghana is the result of major policy efforts undertaken by former and current administrations.
The Education Act of 1961; The Dzobo Report of 1973 (recommended the JSS Concept); The New Structure and Content of Education 1974; The Education Commission Report on Basic and Secondary Education 1987/88; The New Education Reform Programme 1987/88; The University Raising Programme 1987/88; The University Raising Programme 1987/88; The University Raising Programme 1987/88; These measures have not only helped to structurally restructure the education system, but they have also greatly expanded access, quality teaching and learning, infrastructure delivery, and management efficiency (http://www. Modernghana.com).
Nonetheless, Tanoh (2009) believes that despite these improvements, Ghana's “ideal” education system remains illusive. It's worth mentioning that only a few of these pieces of educational legislation, programs, and studies are aimed at secondary school students. According to the definition of educational or education reform, it is “a strategy, program, or movement that tries to bring about a systematic change in educational theory or practice throughout a community or society” (Tanoh, 2009,).
Despite the inclusion of Social Studies in the 1972 Educational Committee report, the New Educational Reform Program, which began in 1987, resulted in its inclusion in school curricula across the country. However, before adding Social Studies to the general education system, three teacher training institutes, namely the Presbyterian Training College, Akropong, the Wesley College, Kumasi, and the Achimota Training College, Accra, experimented with it in the early 1940s.
Effective teaching and learning of Social Studies began as a core topic in Ghana in 1998, following its trial and national adoption at the junior secondary school level in the late 1970s and 1987, respectively (Cobbold, 1999). According to the Ghana Education Service (GES), social studies is taught to help students understand the impact of social problems on individuals, develop social and interpersonal skills for solving personal and societal problems, and develop critical and analytical skills for evaluating information.
It was also intended to help students learn about their roles and responsibilities in protecting and maintaining society and the environment; appreciating the value of a positive self-concept and good interpersonal relationships; developing the ability to adapt to the developing and ever-changing Ghanaian society; acquiring the necessary skills to help them reach their full potential; delegating responsibility to others; and developing a positive self-concept.
1.2 Problem description
Ghana's education system has been evaluated and changed several times, including the development of a four-year senior high school system by the New Education Commission in 1986. These evaluations and revisions are intended to improve the educational quality of the country in order to meet national development goals. These have enabled Ghana to uncover flaws in its educational system and improve access to high-quality education.
The Ghana National Education Campaign Coalition, on the other hand, contends otherwise. To try to meet the nation's educational needs or desires, the Education Act of 1961, the Dzobo Report of 1973, the New Structure and Content of Education 1974, the Education Commission Report on Basic and Secondary Education 1987/88, the Education Reform Programme 1987/88, and the University Rationalization Committee Report have all been used.
These modifications were widely seen as a manner of hastening the implementation of Ghana's government's development goals and programs. However, the implementation of these reform attempts did not appear to be oriented toward the long-term aim of making education more relevant to Ghana's labor market, as well as the country's economic growth and modernization (Agbemabiese, 2007).
The Education Advisory Committee [EAC] on the proposed New Structure and Content of Education recommended Environmental Studies, which included Social Studies, as the first cycle curriculum (1972). (encompassing geography, history, economics, sociology, and civic education components). The group also proposed making Social Studies a required subject in technical school curricula. Social Studies, which encompasses history, geography, sociology, social psychology, and religious studies, has been re-designated as part of the secondary comprehensive curriculum.
Following the educational reform of 1987, the subject of Social Studies was declared mandatory in primary schools and elective in teacher education institutions across the country. Among other things, the reform highlighted the importance of social studies instruction in senior secondary schools. Thus, the senior high school, or senior secondary school, curriculum covers the following social science subjects: Social Studies Studies (Educational Commission, 1987).
In contrast, the committee made no preparations for effective secondary school teaching of the topic. According to the 2002 educational review report, the topic should be taught as a required subject in senior high school. The survey also recommended that the Ministry of Education, Science, and Sport develop Social Studies textbooks, as a shortage of textbooks impedes students' learning, appreciation, and increased participation with the themes.
Despite the fact that Ghana has implemented a variety of educational reform programs, little or no effort has been made to examine the impact of these changes on the senior high school Social Studies curriculum and its outcomes.
1.3 The study's purpose
The study's principal goal is as follows:
To investigate the role of social studies in the Senior High School Curriculum.
To investigate the effects of these educational reforms on senior high school development. Social Sciences Curriculum
To investigate the elements that influence the effective implementation of various changes in Social Studies. Curriculum
To look at measures that can help with the effective implementation of educational reforms in the Social Studies Curriculum.
1.4 Research Issues
1.What function does Social Studies play in the Senior High School Curriculum?
What effect have these educational innovations had on the development of the senior high school Social Studies Curriculum?
What variables influence the effective implementation of various modifications in the Social Studies Curriculum?
What are the factors that contribute to the successful implementation of educational changes in the Social Studies Curriculum?
1.5 Importance of the research
The study will be valuable in a number of ways. It will be useful to scholars, instructors, the government, and curriculum creators in the field of Social Studies curriculum for senior high schools. The findings of the study will inform educational administrators on how to organize refresher courses, seminars, and workshops for tutors on national policies in order to achieve educational goals through effective implementation of these policies in Ghana, specifically the senior high school Social Studies Curriculum. The research will also assist the government in analyzing the impact of various educational reform efforts in the country.
1.6 The scope of the research
The research will look at the National Educational Reform Programme and its perceived impact on the development of secondary school social studies curricula in Ghana, as well as the function of social studies in the senior high school curriculum. In addition, investigate the effects of these educational innovations on the development of the senior high school Social Studies Curriculum.
In addition, investigate the elements that influence the effective implementation of the various reforms in the Social Studies Curriculum. Finally, look into the measures that can help with the proper implementation of educational changes in the Social Studies Curriculum. As a result, it will be limited to instructors from Ghana's selected secondary schools.
1.7 The study's limitations
A variety of difficulties hampered this investigation, which are as follows:
just like any other research, from a lack of needed precise materials on the issue under study to an inability to obtain data
The researcher faced financial constraints in obtaining pertinent materials as well as printing and collating surveys.
Time limitation: Another constraint is time, which makes it difficult for the researcher to juggle between producing the research and engaging in other academic activity.
1.8 Definitions of terminology
Educational reform refers to any deliberate changes in the way a school or school system operates, ranging from teaching methods to administrative procedures.
Curriculum: the subjects that make up a school or college course of study.
P. G. E. Agbemabiese (2007). Emerging elements in Ghanaian educational changes as perceived through US educational reforms Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Ohio.
C. Cobbold (1999). An evaluation of the social studies curriculum implementation at Ghanaian teacher training colleges. Master's thesis, unpublished, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast.
The Commission on Education (1986). The education commission's report on basic education. Accra, Ghana: Ministry of
Tanoh, S. (2009). The never-ending cycle of educational change in Ghana (Electronic version); Journal of Educational Research in Africa, 1,45-54. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/docs/docs/docs/docs/docs/docs/docs/docs/docs/docs/
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THE IMPACT OF NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL REFORM PROGRAMS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IN GHANA