SEX EDUCATION AS A MEANS OF SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF ABORTION
SEX EDUCATION AS A MEANS OF SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF ABORTION
The goal of this study was to assess sex education as an approach for addressing the problem of abortion in Arewa Dandi, a local government area in Kebbi State. A survey design, as well as simple random sample procedures, were used in this investigation. Students and teachers from selected secondary schools in Kebbi State's Arewa Dandi local government area make up the population.
For the sample size, the researcher purposefully chose 200 respondents, 150 of whom were verified. A self-created and verified questionnaire was used to collect data. The collected and authorised questionnaires were analysed using frequency tables. The chi-square statistical technique was used to test the hypotheses. According to the research, the following factors influence secondary school students' sexual behaviour: culture, lifestyle, ignorance, poverty, traditional beliefs, and peer influence.
The research also shows that providing sex education has a significant impact on students' willingness to engage in unsafe abortion. Further studies found that sex education instruction had a significant impact on the prevalence of STDs among secondary school pupils.
As a result, educators are urged to combine official classroom experiences in promoting sexual health awareness with extracurricular activities in schools. Secondary school administrations should often invite guest speakers to offer health lectures to students outside of the traditional student learning process in order to improve students' understanding of sexual health. Just a few examples.
1.1 Background of The Study
The challenges that today's Nigerian youths experience in terms of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, rape, incest, illegal abortion, and a number of other difficulties form the foundation of this research. The world has evolved and demands solutions to the concerns addressed by sexuality education.
According to several surveys, a lot has been done in Nigeria in terms of sex education. “Sex education is a lifelong process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, and values about one's identity, relationship, and intimacy, which encompasses sexual development, reproductive health, interpersonal relationships, affection, intimacy, body images, and gender roles,” according to the Federal Ministry of Education (Nigeria).
Sex education, according to UNESCO (2009), is an age-appropriate, culturally relevant approach of learning about sex and relationships by providing scientifically sound, realistic, non-judgmental information. Through the years, the Nigerian curriculum has affected it in areas such as Basic Science, Physical and Health Education, Social Studies, and so on, with its version of sexuality education known as the Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) curriculum.
Some aspects of sex education have traditionally been taught in the family before any other key factors such as peer group, society, media, school, and so on, in the form of stories, talks, literatures, cautions, and so on.
Because of the importance of sex education and the absence of some components, it is now known as Comprehensive Sex Education (CSE), which includes biological, social, psychological, and spiritual aspects of sexuality (Adrienne et al, 2007).
Various definitions of sexuality have been presented over the years. Some people believe that sexuality is only about sexual intercourse, which is considered a rudimentary view of it. The National Cancer Institute Dictionary of Cancer Terms defines sex as “a person's behaviour, desires, and attitudes towards sex and physical intimacy with others.”
According to WHO (2006), sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction are all important aspects of being human. This illustrates that sexuality encompasses our entire being as sexual beings and goes beyond sexual intercourse.
Others define sex as a person's sexual orientation, such as homosexuality, heterosexuality, bisexuality, lesbian, gayness, and so on. Although sexuality is natural, it can be influenced by factors such as culture, media, social group, religion, family, and school.
Weeks (2003) defines sex as “the cultural expression of our body pleasure.” Sexuality, according to Ikpe (2004), is the fundamental core of one's humanity, comprising one's self-image, gender, physical appearance, and reproductive potential, meaning that sexuality is a natural component of existence. Sexual education is required because of one's sexuality.
An unsafe abortion, according to WHO (2012), is one that is performed by someone who lacks the necessary skill or in an atmosphere that lacks fundamental medical standards, or both. Abortions are performed on women of reproductive age 57% of the time in Sub-Saharan Africa, and unsafe abortion is the leading cause of maternal death in this age group.
Abortions, in particular unsafe abortions, have the potential to endanger women's reproductive health and result in significant, frequently life-threatening complications. Furthermore, because of the major health repercussions that commonly occur, unsafe abortions inflict a huge burden on women and society.
In Nigeria, the situation is exacerbated by socio-cultural and theological beliefs that regard abortion as murder and punish practitioners severely. These circumstances contribute to women seeking illegal abortion services from private physicians, the majority of whom are inexperienced and perform procedures in dangerous environments using harmful intrusive methods.
Despite Nigeria's punitive abortion legislation, the incidence of induced abortion in 2012 was estimated to be 33 per 1000 women of reproductive age. A recent pooled research of Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data from 2011 to 2018 discovered that 3.8% of married women have ever had an abortion.
Sex education is thought to have an impact on youthful sexual behaviour in Nigeria. Adolescents have been demonstrated to make better sexuality decisions, such as abstinence, increasing the age of first intercourse, contraception use, coping with social pressure, having a positive self-image, and so on (P.R.A., 2009). Based on the aforementioned, this study tries to assess Sex education as a solution for tackling the abortion problem.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The fact that the number of sexually transmitted illnesses is rising in both teenage boys and girls (Fanfair and Workowski, 2014) suggests that immediate and sustained action is needed to improve the population's future health and economic output. Given the potential for negative results from naivety,
it is vital that a youngster receives sex education (Shashikumar et al, 2012). A systematic review study to evaluate the efficacy of a sex education intervention discovered that it had a positive affect on teenage sexual behaviour [Garzon-Orjuela, 2013].
The efficacy has been uneven since the establishment and execution of a policy on sexuality education in Nigeria in 1999, with curriculum adjustments that teach sexuality education (Shiffman, & Kunnu, 2012). The high number of adolescent pregnancies, as well as the spread of STDs and STIs, are currently causing worry [Garzon-Orjuela, 2013]. Nigeria has one of the highest rates of teenage female fertility in the world, with 104 births per 1000 [World Bank Group, 202].
This includes an increase in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhoea, some kinds of hepatitis, syphilis, and trichomoniasis, with HIV being the most common [World Bank Group, 2021]. A survey of secondary school students in 2012 discovered that 55.7% and 21.9% of males and girls in the study site engaged in masturbation [Amoo, 2020].
According to a recent study conducted by the Resource Centre for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), nearly half of teenagers engage in oral sex, whereas one out of every ten adolescents engages in anal sex. Recent trends in Nigeria and other Sub-Saharan African countries have sparked worries regarding early sexual debuts.
According to Amoo (2020), the median age of first sex for males in Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Zambia is 18, while the median age at first marriage for women in Ghana, Kenya, and Zambia is 17 [Amoo, 2017]. The average age of first intercourse among teenagers is 15 years, according to a comparable survey conducted by Durowade et al. .
According to the Nigerian Association for the Promotion of Adolescent Health and Development (NAPAHD) in 2003, adolescents accounted for 80% of complications during abortion operations.
Given the increased risk of sexual behaviour and its repercussions among adolescents, the coverage and impact of sex education in poor countries, particularly Nigeria, where adolescents account for just 22% of the population yet are afflicted by STIs, are critical.
According to a study conducted in a Nigerian state, less than a quarter of the respondents received sex education, while more than two-thirds engaged in early sexual activity. Many research on teenage sexual behaviour in Nigeria tend to point in the wrong direction, but the massive annihilation of the 1999 sexuality education policy cannot be proven.
Adolescent sexual behaviour education, or its lack of effectiveness, harms adolescent education, future economic activity, and well-being, as well as the country's poverty or wealth level. As a result, the goal of this study is to assess sex education as an approach for addressing the abortion problem.
1.3 Objectives of The Study
The overall goal of this study is to evaluate Sex education as a strategy of addressing the problem of abortion. As a result, the research will be focused on the following precise goals:
Determine the elements impacting secondary school students' sexual behaviour.
Determine whether or not sex education is taught properly in Nigerian secondary schools.
Determine whether the teaching of sex education has had a major impact on students' willingness to engage in abortion.
Determine whether the teaching of sex education has had a significant impact on the prevalence of STDs among secondary school pupils.
1.4 Research Qustions
The following questions will lead the research:
What variables influence secondary school pupils' sexual behaviour?
Is sex education taught properly in Nigerian secondary schools?
Has the teaching of sex education had a substantial impact on students' willingness to get abortions?
Has sex education instruction had a substantial impact on the frequency of STDs among secondary school students?
1.5 Research Proposal
H0: Sex education has no effect on secondary school pupils' sexual behaviours.
H1: Sex education has a major impact on secondary school pupils' sexual behaviours.
1.6 Significance of the Research
Sexuality education has been shown to alter pupils' sexual behaviours (Rice, 1995). The purpose of the study was to look into claims about the perceived influence of sexuality education on secondary school students' sexual behaviours, ranging from postponed sex to positive self image. This claim motivates the researcher to pursue this project.
Furthermore, it will be used as a literature review by succeeding scholars. This means that other students who decide to undertake research in this field will be able to access this study as available material that may be critically reviewed. Invariably, the study's findings add significantly to the body of scholarly information about the influence of sex education on youths in Nigerian secondary schools.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is limited to the use of sex education to address the problem of abortion among secondary school students. The study will also identify the factors influencing secondary school students' sexual behaviour, determine whether sex education is effectively taught in Nigerian secondary schools,
determine whether sex education teaching has significantly influenced students' indulgence in sexual practises, and determine whether sex education teaching has significantly influenced the prevalence of STD among secondary school students. The study, however, is limited to a few secondary schools in Kebbi State's Arewa Dandi local government area.
1.8 Limitations of the study
The researcher encountered minor obstacles when doing the study, like with any human undertaking. Inadequate funding tend to restrict the researcher's efficiency in locating relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection procedure, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited sample size.
Furthermore, the researcher conducted this investigation while also working on other academic projects. As a result, the time spent researching will be minimised.
Furthermore, the case study approach used in the study presented several difficulties to the investigator, such as the likelihood of biases and poor judgement of concerns. To address the hurdles, the investigator relied on general procedural concepts such as justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and evidence weighing.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Adolescent: A period of physical and psychological development in which
This usually happens between puberty and legal adulthood.
Gender: The classification of an individual as male or female.
Sexual behaviour refers to acts that promote reproduction and sexual stimulation.
sexual organs for satisfaction without conception.
Sexuality is an essential component of who we are, what we believe, how we feel, and how we respond to others.
Sexuality education is the process of teaching and learning about sexuality.
1.10 Research Organisations
The research is divided into five chapters. The first chapter discusses the study's background, problem statement, objective, research questions and hypothesis, significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of words. The second chapter is a review of the literature, with an emphasis on the conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review.
Similarly, chapter three, research methodology, covers the research design, study population, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration.
The fourth and last chapter, chapter four, comprises the data presentation and analysis, while the fifth and final chapter (chapter five), contains the summary, conclusion, and recommendation.