Project Materials

GENERAL

ROLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ADULT PROGRAMMES IN CURBING THE INCIDENCE AND EFFECT OF BLACK SOOT A CASE STUDY OF OBIO AKPOR L.G.A, RIVERS STATE

Do You Have New or Fresh ic? Send Us Your Topic


Post Views:
3

ROLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ADULT PROGRAMMES IN CURBING THE INCIDENCE AND EFFECT OF BLACK SOOT A CASE STUDY OF OBIO L.G.A,

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Pollution has been known to be in existence for a very long time and much had been studied on its relationship with the global growth in
cities. The industrial revolution brought with its technological progress such as exploration of oil and its virtually universal use throughout
dierent industries have aggravated the concentrations of pollution in recent time. Environmental pollution is the contamination of the
physical and biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely
aected. Obafemi (2008) refers to environmental pollution as the process whereby various harmful substances are added to the
environment (i.e. land, water, air, and the acoustic environment etc.) by human and natural activities. The harmful substances called
contaminants released into the environment (i.e. water, land, air) cause harm or discomfort or damage to humans or other living organisms.
However, pollution can be naturally occurring substances, but are considered contaminants when it exceeds natural levels (Hyman, 2009).
Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) (2010) views pollution as man-aided alteration of chemical, physical or biological quality
of the environment to the extent that is detrimental to the environment or beyond acceptable limits. In addition, FEPA (2007) presented
pollution as “any substances in air which could harm man, other animals, vegetation etc. Environmental pollution has become an unending
problem in the modern society and it is now becoming a threat to the livelihood of the people. The air we breathe, the water we drink and
the soil on which most of our food is grown, constitute the main elements of our environment (Harrop, 2009). Nature maintains that
composition of these elements within certain ranges so as to ensure our survival on this planet, but in modern days, man depends on better
methods and techniques to achieve his aims for better standard of living e.g. to provide good food, transport, shelter, good roads and so on.
His eorts both technologically and industrially have resulted in the exploitation of the earth’s resources which in eect has led to
environmental degradation. Pollution of the environment is likened to dierent sources. For instance, air pollution results from the
discharge of toxic materials from man’s domestic and industrial activities into the air which remain suspended in the air for a period of time.
More importantly, there are about five major pollutants that are constantly discharged into the air namely carbon monoxide, particulate
Projectic:
ProjectInformation:
ProjectDepartment:
ProjectBody:
6/23/2020 ROLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ADULT PROGRAMMES IN CURBING THE INCIDENCE AND EFFECT OF BLACK SOOT (A CASE STU…
https://projectclue.com/environmental-science/project-topics-materials-for-undergraduate-students/roles-of-environmental-adult-programmes-in-curbi… 2/10
matter, sulphur dioxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides. These pollutants are obtained from burning of agricultural combustion, space
heating etc. (Abumaizar and Smith, 2010; Makino, 2009). monoxide results from incomplete combustion of fuel in engines, sulphur
dioxide results from burning of coal and oil both in utility and industrial plants. Petroleum refining is also a major source of sulphur oxide
(SO2). The particulate matter includes soot, lead, asbestos, dust which varies in size ranging from the visible to the microscopic
components. Horsfall and Spi (2009) highlighted the sources of hydrocarbons as evaporation of industrial solvents, combustion of weed as
well as emissions from internal combustion engines using gasoline while the harmful nitrogen oxides result from certain combustion
processes industrial boil from plants and transportation vehicle. Similarly, Godish (2014) industrial eluents, dust, smoke, solid waste and
so on, are the of industrialization and urbanization. The introduction of these has led to adverse eect of environmental pollution
on the health of man, animals, both aquatic and terrestrial and of course on plants. On the whole, man is essentially responsible for many of
the environmental problems encountered by him suggesting that the unwanted by- of man’s attempts to improve his standard of
living have contributed largely to the deterioration of the environment (Harries, 2010). In a related development, environmental pollution
has been seen as a living phenomenon in Nigeria especially in the Niger Delta region of the country in which Rivers state is not exempted.
This region has recorded several cases of the eect of pollution such as gas flaring, oil spillage, black soot in their environment due to
pervasive presence and operation of oil and gas companies in the area (Nduka and Orisakwe, 2009). Many people were of the opinion that
the Niger Delta region is a troublesome region. This statement is to the outsiders who know few or nothing about the environmental
deterioration and exploitation taking place in dierent dimensions in the area. Ikpatt and Scott (2014) airmed that there is trouble in the
Niger Delta but the truth about the scenario in the region is that the whole components of the environment have been degraded and this in
eect may generate chaos from the inhabitants of the area. This study therefore focused on the role of environmental adult programmes in
curbing the incidence and eects of black soot in Rivers state. Finally, the study suggested various ways to reduce the rate at which
pollution occurs in the study area.
1.2 MENT OF PROBLEM
Black Soot pollution is a result of long years of careless, reckless, irresponsible and unsustainable burning and use of fossil fuel. When soot
builds up in the air, it eventually deposits onto surfaces due to random collisions with surfaces. When particles collide and grow in size, they
gain enough mass to deposit due to gravity. Other environmental factors may possibly shorten the time necessary for soot to deposit, but it
should be understood that eventually the soot will deposit onto surfaces Black soot is hazardous to health as the toxic pollutants of inhaleable sizes of between 10 -2.5 micrometer can penetrate into human lungs and blood stream to cause respiratory and cardiovascular
diseases, such as cancer. Air pollution is associated with a number of adverse health impacts. Air pollution particularly aects the most
vulnerable in society: children and older people, and those with pre-existing heart and lung conditions. A large range of studies and reports
have confirmed the links between air pollution and ill health and premature death, and the complex cumulative impacts of dierent
pollutants on health are increasingly well understood. In Rivers state, much attention is given on general industrial pollution and pollution
in oil industries with little reference on damage of pollution caused by mobile transportation sources of air pollution. The situation of
increased pollution from mobile transportation sources is on the increase in per capital vehicle ownership, thus resulting to high congestion
on the Port-Harcourt city roads and increase in the concentration of pollutants in the air, consequently, increasing health risk on human
population. It is therefore important to examine the concept of air pollution, agents of air pollution, sources of air pollution, unsafe
practices resulting to increased air pollution, air emissions reduction strategies and air quality improvement action plans and the role of
environmental adult programmes in curbing the effect of this problem at hand.

1.2. AIMS OF THE STUDY

The major purpose of this study is to examine roles of environmental adult programmes in curbing the incidence and effect of black soot.
Other general objectives of the study are:

To examine the sources of black soot in Obio/Akpor L.G.A, Rivers state.To examine the effect of black soot in Obio/Akpor environment.To examine the roles of environmental adult programmes in curbing the incidence and effect of black soot in Obio/Akpor L.G.A, Rivers
state.To examine the environmental impacts of particle (soot) pollution.To examine the relationship between roles of environmental education programmes and the effect of black soot.To examine how the has investigated and find a solution to the problem.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What are the sources of black soot in Obio/Akpor L.G.A, Rivers state?What are the effects of black soot in Obio/Akpor environment?What are the roles of environmental adult programmes in curbing the incidence and effect of black soot in Obio/Akpor L.G.A, Rivers state?What are the environmental impacts of particle (soot) pollution?What is the relationship between roles of environmental education programmes and the effect of black soot?How has the investigated and find a solution to the problem?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Environmental adult programmes have no effect on the incidence and effect of black soot.There is no significant relationship between roles of environmental education programmes and the effect of black soot.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study would be utilized by the at both Federal and the State levels through their various Ministries like, Ministry of
Environment, Education, Health, and Information. It will be beneficial for these ministries in the area of policy formulation, most especially
in the area of educating public in the schools and out-of- school. It will assist them when formulating laws that will promote human health
and protect the environment. The citizenry will also benefit greatly from this study, as the study will reveal how a person’s carefree attitude
about the environment can be costly not only to himself but others. Non-al organization (NGO’s) in the areas of health and
environment will also benefit. This study will guide them in the areas of production and distribution of educational materials to the public.
The information will go a long way in helping the teachers, most especially Adult educator, environmental educators and health educators
will also benefit from the study in such a way that it would help them to emphasize the link between good health and clean environment to
the school public. houses and others who are charged with the responsible of awareness creation will also benefit from the study.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is based on the roles of environmental adult programmes in curbing the incidence and effect of black soot in Obio/Akpor L.G.A,
Rivers state.

1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or
information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on
the time devoted for the research work

ROLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ADULT PROGRAMMES IN CURBING THE INCIDENCE AND EFFECT OF BLACK SOOT A CASE STUDY OF OBIO L.G.A,

ROLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ADULT PROGRAMMES IN CURBING THE INCIDENCE AND EFFECT OF BLACK SOOT A CASE STUDY OF OBIO L.G.A,

Related

Not What You Were Looking For? Send Us Your Topic

INSTRUCTIONS AFTER PAYMENT

After making payment, kindly send the following:
  • 1.Your Full name
  • 2. Your Email Address
  • 3. Your Phone Number
  • 4. Amount Paid
  • 5. Project ic
  • 6. Location you made payment from

» Send the above details to our email; [email protected] or to our support phone number; (+234) 0813 2546 417 . As soon as details are sent and payment is confirmed, your project will be delivered to you within minutes.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Advertisements