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POLITICAL SCIENCE

ROLE OF PRIVATE AGENCIES IN THE PROMOTION OF MASS LITERACY

ROLE OF AGENCIES IN THE PROMOTION OF MASS

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ROLE OF PRIVATE AGENCIES IN THE PROMOTION OF MASS LITERACY

TO CHAPTER ONE
Background of The Study
The ancient Benin Kingdom is thought to have existed around the year 900 A.D. Oral history tells that throughout the empire, Obas (kings) of Benin dispatched their sons as vassals to some portions of what are now known as Edo and Delta States to establish their control. People from Benin who migrated to some of these locations have ancestors who were related to the Oba of Benin.

Oredo Local Government Area was formed in 1976 from what was previously known as Benin Division in the Old Mid-Western State.
Oredo Local Government Area is now one of Edo State's fourteen local government areas.

It shares a boundary with five local government areas in Edo State (Orhionmwon, Uhunmwode, Ovia South-West, Ovia -East, and Ethiope Local Government Area).

The wards of Oredo Local Government Area are as follows: G.R.A./Oko, Ogba, Ogbe, Ogida, Uselu, New Benin, Ogbeson, Etete, Ologbo, Irimwinhin, Ugbekun, and Oka.

According to the 1991 population census, the population of Oredo Local Government Area was 780, 976 (780, 976) people.
The Benin people have a shared ancestry as well as customs, beliefs, and culture.

Their cultural identity is visible in their festivals, religious ceremonies, and marriage ceremonies. The residents of Oredo local government region speak Edo as their mother tongue.

The Edo language shares dialectic similarities with Etsako, Ishan, and Owan. The official language of communication is English. The Oredo Local Government Area has a tropical climate with dry and rainy seasons. The dry season lasts from November to April, whereas the rainy season begins in April and lasts until October, with a brief dry period in August.

From December to February, there is harmattan. The yearly rainfall in the area ranges from 150cm to 180cm. The temperature range is between 39oC and 44oC.The city of Benin

Benin City is the capital of Edo State and the headquarters of the Oredo Local Government Area. Benin's old metropolis is clean and well-developed. It boasts some nice roads and some of the best town layout and overall views in the country. The Oba's Palace is located at Adesogbe and King Streets in Benin City.

The city is ringed by a several-meter-deep moat created by the early Obas to ward against attackers and prevent a mass evacuation.
Benin City has educational, medical, transportation, telecommunication, catering, and an ultramodern Oba Market.

The University of Benin, Edo Broadcasting Service, Cultural Centre, Press Centre, Urhuokpota Hall, Central Hospital Ikpoba River Dam, National Museum, and Ogba Zone are among the other social and cultural institutions of Benin.

There are multiple commercial bank branches, seven community banks, a Peoples Bank branch, and the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). Benin City, being a commercial hub, acts as a gateway to the country's east, west, and north, with a well-developed road network.

The government has devised and is implementing a master plan for developing Benin into a modern metropolis. Benin City, the old Benin Empire's heart, is the cradle of civilization and the centre of arts and culture. Its brass-works desires and terracotta are internationally acclaimed.

In the city, there is a museum, a crafts shop (Edo Crafts Shop), and an arts and crafts school. Benin City is home to many artists and craftspeople, including blacksmiths, cloth weavers, basket makers, and potters. Benin City's Igun Street is well-known for its old crafts and blacksmith skills.

Educational Institutions and the Campaign for Mass Literacy
Oredo Local Government Area is blessed with a number of public and private educational institutions. According to the educational statistics for the 1992/1993 academic year published by the Edo State Ministry of Education's Department of Educational Planning,

Research, and Statistics, there are 196 public primary schools, 43 public secondary schools, 75 private primary schools, 42 private secondary schools, 137 registered Nursery schools, approved commercial schools, and 20 technical/ vocational institutions in Oredo Local Government Area. The University of Benin's two campuses are likewise in the Oredo Local Government Area.

Benin City also has the Institute of Continuing Education. On September 8, 1982, the National Mass Literacy Campaign was begun in recognition of the importance of literacy in national development. On September 8, 1990, the World Literacy Day was established in Bankot, Tare- Land's capital.

The year 1990 was designated as the International Literacy Year, and World Literacy Day is observed annually on September 8th. As a result, the United Nations Educational and Scientific Council (UNESCO) has designated the year (1990-2000) as the international decade for global illiteracy elimination.

On September 8, 1982, the Chairman of the Oredo Local Government Council started the Mass Literacy Campaign.
Adult literacy organisations exist in both the council's office and the Local Ministry of Education to promote the mass literacy campaign in the Oredo Local Government Area.

They assist in the organisation and coordination of the local adult literacy programmes. As a result, adult literacy and evening classes are organised in designated centres in some primary schools in Oredo Local Government Area.

To raise general awareness of the programme, Oredo Local Government Council launched an enlightenment campaign through literacy jungles on radio and the mobile information service to reach people at the grassroots level.

As are and time were no longer impediments to education, many illiterate adults, especially market women, were given a second shot.
The local, state, and federal governments all contribute to the adult literacy programmes. The programme is coordinated at the state level by the adult and non-formal education agency.

The curriculum comprises mostly of English language, Arithmetic, Religious Studies, Social Studies, Elementary Science, and Central Knowledge, with the goal of exposing instructors to the three R's-reading, writing, and arithmetic.

Private organisations also supported the Oredo Local Government Area's mass literacy initiative. Private proprietors, churches, Islamic organisations, the National Council of Women's Societies (NCWS), and social and voluntary associations are among the private agencies. Some of the private organisations in the Oredo Local Government Area include:

1. Private individuals: Adult Primary and G.C.E. Schools, Pre-G.C.E. Examiners, Reading and Writing Schools, and operators of private vocational institutions, private secondary schools, and commercial schools.

2. Churches: YWCA, Central Baptist Church Literacy Class, New Benin Baptist Church Adult Literacy Centre, Faith Model School, Benin United Baptist Church, Holy Cross Cathedral, and St. Mathew Cathedral.

3. Islamic Organisations: Centre Mosque on Ring Road in Benin City, Atmadiyya Moslem Mission on Edebiri Street behind Ogbe Stadium, and Iyaro Mosque near Lawani Junction in Benin City.

4. Voluntary and social organisations include the National Council of Women's Societies (NCWS), the Police Officer Wives Association Vocational Education Centre (POWAVEC), and the Better Life for Rural Women Craft Shop.

Statement of the Problem
It is widely acknowledged that literacy promotes national development and that development can only thrive in a literacy society; however, if the above assertion is true, why is there still a high tendency of citizens at large shunning this rare opportunity of private agencies in the promotion of mass literacy,

because there is still a large gap between the educated and the less educated, and it is against this backdrop that this research attempts to discover the following reasons.

1. Is the issue of underfunding harming private agencies?

2. What is the level of commitment from subordinate agencies to the adult literacy programme?

Research
To guide this investigation, three research questions were developed:
1. What role do private organisations play in promoting the Oredo Local Government Area's mass literacy campaign?

2. What is the number of people enrolled in private adult literacy programmes?

3. How are private organisations funded to improve the effectiveness of mass literacy campaigns in the Oredo Local Government Area?

This study will investigate the attributed function of private agencies in the promotion of mass literacy campaigns in Oredo Local Government Area based on the aforementioned premise.

The Goal of the Research
The primary goal of this research is to find solutions to current difficulties and to determine the importance of private entities in the development of mass literacy campaigns in the Oredo Local Government Area.

Also, a critical examination of whether there is a significant increase in adult literacy enrollment relative to the general literacy level of the population as a result of the involvement of private entities in the development of a mass literacy campaign in the area.

The Significance of the Research
It is intended that the study's findings and recommendations will help organisations promote a broad literacy campaign in the Oredo local government region. The researcher also believes that the findings of this study will greatly add to human understanding in the domain of adult education in relation to mass literacy campaigns, and that the study will serve as a foundation for future research.

Scope of The Study
This researcher is intended to cover the Oredo Local Government Area, which is located in the Edo South Senatorial District and has its headquarters in Benin City. The local government area is divided into twelve wards: G.R.A./Oko, Ogba, Ogbe, Uselu, Ogida, and New Benin. Ogbeson, Etete, Ologbo, Irimwinhin, Ugbekun, and Oka are among the others.

The population was 374, 671 according to the 2006 Census (Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia). The research focuses on Benin City and the role of private organisations in promoting a mass literacy campaign in the Oredo Local Government Area.

Definition of Terms
It is helpful to clarify the following topics used in the study to help readers comprehend the work:
1. Private Organisations: This term refers to non-governmental organisations participating in the promotion of mass literacy campaigns. They are private-gunned and sponsored volunteer entities, institutions, or associations that provide literacy programmes for adults and youths.

2. Literacy is defined as the capacity to read, write, and compute in a certain language. Literacy in Nigeria is defined as the ability to read, write, and compute in English at an acceptable level. This is due to the fact that English is the official language of communication as well as the language of education in schools.

3. Church: A place of Christian worship. Many churches set up schools to provide educational opportunities for its members.
4. Mosque: An Islamic temple or a structure used for Islamic worship. In addition to religious instruction, most mosques construct and equip educational facilities for children and adult members.

5. Adult Literacy course: This is an educational course for adult learners that teaches them literacy skills such as reading, writing, and computing. It also includes functional literacy, which is targeted at acquiring vocational skills.

6. Social Organisations: These are non-profit organisations that set up schools to supplement government efforts. They provide educational opportunities for their members to gain fundamental and vocational skills required for overall growth.

The National Council of Women's Societies, Better Life for Rural Women, and co-operative societies are examples of such organisations.

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