ROLE OF CO-OPERATIVES SOCIETIES IN HOUSING DELIVERY
ROLE OF CO-OPERATIVES SOCIETIES IN HOUSING DELIVERY
A profession is a vocation whose practise is based on a comprehension of the theoretical framework of some areas of study and the abilities that go with that understanding. This comprehension and capability are applied to key practical matters of man.
The practises of the profession are influenced by generalised knowledge as well as the accumulated wisdom and experience of mankind, which serves to rectify the vital needs of man. K. F. Andrews views its primary ethical necessity to be selfless service to the client.
The act of investing in a housing cooperative is merely the first step towards capital investment. To achieve its goal, the Housing co-operative enterprises must be run like a business successfully and financially.
Furthermore, there is an urgent need to raise the inherent understanding that the housing cooperative company must be run successfully, profitably, and professionally.
As a result, this paper strives to define development and attempts to assess the amount of involvement of professional housing co-operatives in Enugu, utilising Trans-Ekulu and Abakpa Housing Estate as a test case.
Cooperative societies are thought to have begun in Nigeria between the first and second world wars, particularly in (Beer 1976). The co-operative societies ordinance of 1935 was the first to regulate the operation of co-operative societies.
However, indigenous people made successful attempts at the traditionally styled co-operative societies known as “Isusu” prior to the aforementioned period.
Co-operatives were so successful in Nigeria that by 1965, there were around 5,5000 co-operative societies with a total of 358,000 members. To help co-operatives run smoothly, specialised banks have long been formed across the country to meet their banking needs.
According to one school of thought, a co-operative society is a collection of people that band together to provide accommodation for members of the community. The co-operative may finance the project through group contributions and actual participation. The government or any other organisation may give funds and resources, while individual members of the co-operative society provide labour.
HOUSING CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES' FUNCTIONS
1. Provision of loans and credit to members:
The Housing Co-operative Society connects co-op members with financial institutions. Banks, governments, and other institutions prefer to work with groups interested in housing development rather than individuals.
Individual members' creditworthiness for home loans is scrutinised by the housing cooperative society. negotiates better conditions for loans and undertakes to develop such home loans.
Supervises or oversees the usage of housing loans/credit to prevent diversion, mismanagement, or misapplication, among other things. In most situations, the problem is resolved by a housing cooperative group providing members with building supplies in kind.
ii. Housing Loan Refund or Repayment.
A cooperative society involved in a housing scheme ensures that loans with interest are repaid on time to the financial institutions who made them available to members. The society achieves this by notifying beneficiary members of the due/maturity date as soon as possible.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In Nigeria, the housing crisis is particularly apparent in urban areas, which have seen an increase in the number of housing units available for occupation.
Low and middle-income earners, who account for more than 95% of the urban labour force, were the hardest hit. The function of housing cooperatives in housing delivery, as well as known methods of utilising co-operative societies to enhance the number of residential houses for low and middle income people in our urban centre.
The Nigeria building and road research institute (NBRRI) created a prototype house in Nigeria that can be sponsored by urban housing cooperatives.
The members of co-operative societies originally regulated the role of co-operative societies. The group creates what may be considered a traditional styled co-operative society known as “Isusu.”
Scholars and researchers have proposed various definitions for co-operatives, but perhaps the most comprehensive is provided by Savage and Volkin (1965), who state that a co-operative society is a voluntary contractual organisation or persons with a mutual ownership interest in providing themselves a need service (s) on a non-profit basis.
The investment and operational risk, gains obtained or losses incurred in a co-operative are shared equitably by its members in proportion to their use of the co-operative services.
The term applies to any co-operative society in general, but a housing co-operative can be referred to when a society serves the goal of constructing, owning, and managing dwellings, as well as for common and acquisition or maintenance of built houses (Levin 1981).
One of the issues is rampant inflation, which has resulted in every increase in the price of building supplies.
2. Due to a lack of disposable income, its members must contribute.
3. Insufficient release of cash due to bottle necessity in the parent firm by The National Housing Programme (NHP) 1994/95, imitated by Alhaji (Dr) Lateef Kayode, the immediate former minister of works/housing.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In most developed countries, the housing (shelter) industry contributes significantly to economic performance. An increase in housing market activity usually implies a robust economy, whereas a fall in the market usually signals a weak economy.
Most countries have boosted investment in the housing industry as a means of stimulating domestic economic growth and combating domestic recession.
Over the last decade, the housing sector's potential for strengthening emerging countries' social and economic development has become abundantly clear. Housing construction is a labor-intensive industry.
It produces jobs, particularly for unskilled and semi-skilled labour. The building of low-income housing, in particular, relies on locally produced materials for the majority of its inputs, while creating demand for other goods and services. This is in addition to creating the infrastructure required for economic growth and a healthy living environment for the people.
However, the apparent intractability of Enugu's housing crisis demonstrates unequivocally that as a state, we have yet to commit to a deliberate and consistent housing delivery system.
This is a disagreement over the adoption and application of several creative laws and policies at the federal and state levels, as well as the establishment of numerous agencies tasked with implementing various areas of national housing policy.
The state had already established institutions and adopted legislation aimed at establishing a sustainable base for providing housing for low-income families in particular, as well as other economic categories. The federal housing authority (FHA), the housing division of the federal ministry of works and housing (FMWH),
and the urban development bank of Nigeria (UDBN) Plc have all been established, and policies such as the mortgage institutions Decree No. 53 of 1992, the urban and regional planning Decree, and the land use have all been enacted.
At the state level, most states have established Housing Corporations, Housing Development in Ministries of Works and Housing, and more recently, rent edicts. Nonetheless, despite all efforts, the housing crisis appears to be unsolvable.
1.3 goals AND OBJECTIVES
The cooperative's goal was to expand the number of residential houses available for poor and middle-income city people. The stated goal will be accomplished through the following objectives.
1. To showcase the benefits of a self-help housing cooperative.
2. To investigate the reactions of low and middle-income earners to the concept of housing cooperatives.
3. To determine the most viable housing cooperatives in Enugu by enumerating the various varieties.
4. To provide low-income urban residents with appropriate proto-type low-cost housing that can be sponsored by co-operatives.
5. To generate helpful data for the drafter of the proposed housing cooperative ordinance.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The government has attempted to highlight the immensity of the housing crisis in Nigeria with this effort. It agrees that financing is one of the defining characteristics of an effective housing strategy. It was also decided that the present National Housing Policy is comprehensive enough to get the country to 2010, although with certain changes.
Effective housing finance, along with competent management and low-cost building materials, will surely aid in the execution of other policy issues.
Through this study, the research has highlighted specific concerns and problems that affect housing delivery in general, and the disbursement of the National House Fund (NHF) in particular. The researcher believes that if we put all of our efforts into the National Housing Fund (NHF), it will be more effective.
Earners with a low income. This initiative looked into the growth of local building material production. It is aimed at establishing material self-sufficiency and bringing it within the financial reach of the majority of Nigerians, particularly low-income earners.
The project takes a comprehensive look at ways for achieving this, with the premise that the expansion of local construction material manufacturing will have a substantial impact on housing development.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Enugu, the state capital, was chosen as the case study. It targeted moderate and low-income earners in the local government councils of Enugu East and Enugu West.
Trans-Ekulu Housing Co-operation and Abakpa Housing Co-operation were chosen.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. What are the benefits of self-help housing cooperatives?
2. How do low and middle-income earners react to the concept of housing cooperatives?
3. Relate urban low and middle-income households to appropriate profit forms of low-cost residential housing that can be established by cooperatives.
4. What information is useful for the development of a proposed housing cooperative?
This dissertation, like any other research paper, had certain inherent difficulties. The main barrier was a lack of literacy and public awareness about research, particularly as it relates to cooperative groups. Even in a casual approach, some of the responders displayed a high level of hostility.
Some of those interviewed were sceptical and withheld key information due to their preconceived notions about the research's outcome.
Finally, financing was a big impediment, and the time limit for project completion was insufficient for a project of this scale. Despite these issues, the researcher felt enormous pressure while working on this subject. This study is constrained by a lack of data and time.
1.8.1 Low Income Group
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
All wage earners and self-employed people whose annual income is five thousand naria (5, 000.00) or less as of 1988, or whose arrival income is 20% or less of the maximum annual income of the highest salary grade level within the civil service structure, whichever is higher, are classified as low income.
1.8.2 Group of Middle-Income People
Workers in the middle-income bracket earn more than 20% but less than 50% of the maximum yearly income of the highest salary grade level.
1.8.3 Cooperative housing
It was accepted that a housing cooperative is “a formal association of members' physical, social, and economic living conditions, utilising self-help principles.”
18.104.22.168 “PHYSICAL” features may include: slum and squatter upgrading programmes, site and services programme core housing project, home renovation programmes, or new development on private property.
22.214.171.124 Community facilities and social activities, such as daycare centres, religious centres, school community centres, health and sanitation facilities, communication and transportation networks, are examples of “SOCIAL” components.
126.96.36.199 “ECONOMIC” components may include building materials production centres, job creation initiatives, and development of small and shopping districts (for example, cooperative consumer stores).
188.8.131.52 “SELF – HELP” includes, but is not limited to, self-construction or sweat equity. Participation, acting as the general contractor responsible for the hiring and managing of architects and small builders,
the reactivation and arrangements for service, the exchange of labour and skills (mutual self-help), and the management of the co-operative itself through democratic process are also examples of beneficiaries impute.