Project Materials






This research addressed a gap in the literature addressing the influence of leadership traits on work satisfaction among supervised employees. This quantitative research aimed to determine the impact of genuine leadership on the work performance of Dangote Industries employees. Authentic leadership arose from the notion of positive psychology, which postulates that self-development corresponds with a focus on the development of others and is founded on the concept that personal development is attained by concentrating on positive personality traits. Using the questionnaire, employees of Dangote industries were polled. 138 participants filled out the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire and the Job Descriptive Index.

Using three logistic regression models, the researchers examined the relationship between the independent variable (genuine leadership) and leader-member interchange and job performance. This research found a substantial relationship between genuine leadership and work performance and overall job satisfaction, but not task satisfaction or leader satisfaction. Improvements in human resource procedures are a consequence of good societal transformation. By tailoring onboarding evaluations to authenticity dimensions such as ethical behavior and transparency, human resource managers might apply genuine leadership in employee recruiting. Additionally, employee training based on genuine characteristics may minimize work-related stress, absenteeism, and job churn.




1.1        Background of the study

The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between genuine leadership and work satisfaction among supervised employees. The significance of the study stems from the fact that research on leadership traits that increase employee job satisfaction is crucial to the business sector, as it may provide answers to a number of industry-related problems, such as how to increase retention rates, job satisfaction, job stress, absenteeism, productivity, and profitability (Sousa-Lima, Michel, & Caetano, 2013; Wang & Hsieh, 2013). Authentic leadership is a type of management that inspires workers by soliciting their feedback and demonstrating ethical conduct, so enhancing the work culture.

(Fusco, O’Riordan, & Palmer, 2015; Walumbwa, Wang, Wang, Schaubroeck, & Avolio, 2010) Authenticity is characterized by ethical conduct, transparency, self-awareness, and well-informed decision-making. Although many leadership styles cite ethics as a major trait, genuine leadership is distinguished by its emphasis on self-awareness and openness (Azanza, Moriano, & Molerob, 2013).

It is considered that efficient and successful leadership skills are founded in ethics, personalities, and motivations (Valentine, Hollingworth, & Eidsness, 2014). However, good leadership attributes are not exclusive to leaders; they are also present in the personalities of subordinate personnel (Sharp, Roche, & Cable, 2015; Tonkin, 2013). Organizational executives are not solely responsible for a company’s success (Azanza et al., 2013). They depend on subordinates to manage their time to meet deadlines, interact with coworkers, and solve problems to overcome obstacles. Therefore, it is essential that they demonstrate leadership qualities in order to keep their workplace effective (Azanza et al., 2013;


Hsiung, 2012) Understanding how subordinate staff employs leadership traits to govern their behaviors, relationships, and job quality for the benefit of the work culture may result in positive societal change (Sousa-Lima et al., 2013).

Positive psychology, the cornerstone for genuine leadership theory, is the most significant theory related with this research. According to this idea, learning interventions that focused on what was wrong with individuals and their flaws were less effective than those that focused on their strengths (Howard, 2008; Morganson, Litano, & O’Neill, 2014). The components of genuine leadership are based on positive psychology, in that authentic leadership requires self-awareness or self-understanding, which serves as the basis for making useful judgments and adopting well-planned and helpful actions. Authentic leadership also requires balanced information processing or the collecting and evaluation of data without prejudice (Metcalf, 2014).


1.2        Statement of problem

Hannah, Walumbwa, and Fry (2011) offered information about the impact of genuine leadership on nonmanagerial workers based on an ALQ-based research of military commanders and training teams. Results suggested that leader authenticity is positively linked with follower authenticity. Hsiung (2012) presented information about the significance of the genuine leader attribute of informed decision-making and employee voice utilizing 70 Taiwanese real estate teams and factors including perceived fairness, authentic leadership, leader-member exchange (LMX), and employee voice. A modified version of the LePine and Van Dyne scale and the Genuine Leadership Questionnaire were used to evaluate worker voice and authentic leadership, respectively.


management (Hsiung, 2012). Voice volume demonstrated a strong relationship between genuine leadership and employee job satisfaction.

Valsania, Moriano León, Alonso, and Cantisano (2012) offered information on levels of job satisfaction in the workplace in relation to the impact of authenticity on nonmanagerial personnel. This research included 227 Spanish employees from various organizations, who were divided into 40 teams. The variables genuine leadership and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) were assessed by the ALQ and the Lee and Allen scale for organizational citizenship completed by team members. The findings indicated that genuine leadership attributes such as openness and high ethical standards had a beneficial effect on employee happiness and organizational commitment.

Wang and Hsieh (2013) examined the association between authenticity and work happiness as measured by the degree of involvement utilizing 386 Taiwanese employees from various organizations. Results indicated a favorable relationship between employee work satisfaction and employee engagement when assessing genuine traits with the ALQ (Wang & Hsieh, 2013).

Authenticity in the workplace is the demonstration of characteristics such as self-awareness, high moral standards, informed decision-making, and candor (Gardner & Avolio, 2005). Despite the fact that authentic characteristics can apply to individuals at any work level, authenticity as a means of self-management is a relatively new interpretation of authenticity, and those who practiced it were believed to have contributed to the workplace culture through their ethical behavior (Shirey, 2006; Yang, 2014). Under the supervision of their leaders, authentic workers were acutely aware of their own talents, flaws, and how these attributes impact their followers. They utilize their own ethical behaviors to motivate others to work efficiently (Sharp et al., 2015). It is vital to highlight that the subordinate worker’s personality has played a role in whether or not they accept and comply with their instruction, and so has also contributed to the success of the company (Copeland, 2016).

Wong, Laschinger, and Cummings (2013) investigated the relationship between authenticity and work satisfaction and found that authenticity in leadership was positively correlated with authenticity in followers. Given the potential effect such a mix of qualities may have on the workplace, it is necessary to have a deeper understanding of both the components and their influence on businesses (Burris, Ayman, Che, & Min, 2013). Developments in the knowledge of this leadership style and its impacts in the industrial arena might lead to the implementation of management training programs that enhance employee-employer relations and boost work satisfaction (Azanza et al., 2013). Van Quaquebeke, Kerschreiter, Buxton, and van Dick (2010) examined how these perceptions affected the self-identification of followers with their leaders and their levels of work satisfaction. When leader values matched those of followers, there was a positive relationship between constructive leadership values, workplace contentment, and leader satisfaction.

Significant research demonstrates a correlation between leadership conduct and beneficial organizational results (Boehm, Dwertmann, Bruch, & Shamir, 2015). Authentic leadership has been demonstrated to improve people’ overall leadership qualities (Avolio & Gardner, 2005), to be associated with increased employee engagement 4 (Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Hassan & Ahmed, 2011), and to be positively connected with ethical culture (Morris, 2014; Schein, 2004). Today, non-traditional characteristics such as employee engagement and ethical culture determine the long-term profitability and sustainability of businesses (Bustillo, 2012). In order to have a greater knowledge of these notions, it is crucial to do research on the links between genuine leadership and different good organizational outcomes, such as employee engagement and ethical culture, in many cultural contexts. So much for the concept of the research.

Existed a vacuum in existing leader/follower studies detailing how the qualities of lower- and higher-ranking employees interacted.

To overcome the restriction of construct validity, the suggested research used the notions that have been distilled into the quantifiable constructs of transparency, informed decision-making, ethics, and self-evaluation (Avolio et al., 2007). Underrepresentation of the target demographic may result in undercoverage bias. Using the leader-member interaction as a mediator, the purpose of this research is to determine the effect of genuine leadership on the work performance of Dangotes’s employees.


1.3       Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of real leadership on the work performance of Dangotes’s employees via the leader-member interaction. The particular objectives:

Evaluate the impact of real leadership on the work performance of Dangotes’s employees.
Evaluate the effect of leader-member on the work performance of Dangotes’s employees
Examine the impact of real leadership and leader-membership on Dangotes’s job performance.

1.4       Research Questions and Hypotheses

Based on the study’s aims, the following research questions were generated:

How does real leadership impact the work performance of Dangotes’s employees?

To what extent does leader-member influence the work performance of Dangotes’s employees?
How does the combination of the genuine leadership and leader-member characteristics influence Dangotes’ work performance?

Following the study questions, the following null hypotheses were developed:

Ho1: Authentic leadership has no effect on the work performance of Dangotes’s personnel.

Leader-member leadership has little effect on the work performance of Dangotes’s personnel.

Ho3: Neither authentic leadership nor leadership-member impact the work performance of Dangotes’s personnel.


1.5  Significance of the study

Human resource personnel’s capacity to transform leadership training design and development may facilitate a shift in executive approaches to employee interactions via less aggressive production strategies (Faircloth, 2017; Howard, 2008). The good impacts of genuine leadership may also mitigate the negative consequences of work stress, which may otherwise result in burnout and absence. Globally, genuine leadership, which is based on more benevolent decision-making and employee impact, has the potential to enhance working conditions (Hsiung, 2012).

In addition, a greater awareness of the real characteristics shared by managers and direct reports would be advantageous in today’s internationally focused business, when leaders and employees may be from diverse cultures. Finding a common thread in the form of values and work ethics may reduce any hostility that may emerge as a consequence of interactions between persons from various backgrounds (Liborius, 2014). Developing nations that look to nations with a longer industrial history may aim to mimic strategies of raising productivity via better employer-employee relations without resorting to harsh or repressive measures.

1.6       Organization of the study

This dissertation has five chapters. In the preceding chapter, the study literature on genuine leadership, employee job performance, and leader-member interaction was introduced. The Nigerian organizational setting and its applicability to the research were explored. In addition, it outlined the research issues that motivated this study and identified research gaps in the literature. The chapter then describes the research methodology and the relevance of the findings. The chapter finishes with a glossary of terminology that appear throughout the paper. In Chapter 2, I examine the literature pertinent to the stated study issue. The review provides a summary of the research on genuine leadership, employee engagement, and ethical culture in firms. In addition, given the worldwide setting of this dissertation, the chapter addresses international research on the topics relevant to this study as well as the difficulties of using western-made measuring tools in developing nations such as Nigeria. An explanation of a conceptual model finishes the chapter. Chapter 3 starts with the presentation of assumptions derived from the chapter 2 literature analysis, followed by a discussion of the pilot study conducted for this research to ensure the survey instrument’s usability in the Nigerian environment. The next section describes the study design, population, sample frame, measuring devices, and statistical analysis procedure. Evaluations of reliability and validity, an analysis of the measurement model, an analysis of the structural model, an evaluation of alternative models, and the findings of the study are presented in Chapter 4. The fifth chapter discusses the dissertation’s results, implications for research and practice, limits, ideas for further study, and concluding remarks.





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