ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS REQUIRED BY WOMEN RETIREES FOR PROCESSING OF GARRI AS sustainable BUSINESS IN enugu STATE
This research examined the entrepreneurial skills necessary for women retirees in Enugu state to process garri as a viable enterprise. Three goals were established: to determine the procedures required by women retirees in planning for garri processing in Enugu state, in processing garri in Enugu state, and in selling processed garri for a sustainable income. The research population consists of 75 women from Nsuuka, Enugu state. The researcher used questionnaires as the data gathering tool. Using a descriptive survey research approach, this study was conducted. The acquired data were tabulated and evaluated using straightforward percentages and frequencies.
1.1Background of the study
Cassava is an important food crop in the tropics, accounting for 33% of all basic foods produced in sub-Saharan Africa. Gari is a product manufactured from cassava. In terms of food supply (kilocalories per capita per day) in Nigeria, particularly the South of Nigeria. Cassava cultivation and promotion have been a component of government policy as part of the drive for prosperity via the commercialization plan for smallholders (Samura AE, 2017)
Garri is the creamy, granular flour made from newly picked cassava's tuberous, starchy roots. The mature cassava roots are peeled, washed, grated, and fermented to produce garri. After three to five days of fermentation, depending on personal taste, the grated mash is bagged, de-watered, and grated again. Charcoal, firewood, diesel, or gas burners may be used to fry garri (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire sources for frying garri).
Gari (also Garri or tapioca) is the cassava product that is most extensively traded. More than 75 percent of the cassava grown in Africa is projected to be turned into garri. Consequently, garri prices are often an accurate indicator of cassava demand and availability.
In the context of this research, women retirees are adult females who have left their first employments after lengthy service but are ready and able to continue their lives in a desired but less rigorous vocation for a reasonable investment. For women retirees to resume processing cassava into garri as a business, entrepreneurial skills are required. According to Meredith, Nelson, and Neck (1990), to be entrepreneurial is to combine personal attributes, financial means, and resources within one's surroundings. Sett (2004) defined entrepreneurship as having a strong company vision, opportunity, purpose, and strategy. In the context of this research, entrepreneurship refers to the capacity of women retirees to identify an opportunity and acquire the requisite capital to engage in a firm in which they have an interest and expertise. According to Ibrahim (2007), a skill is a specific capacity to perform something well. Ejiofor (2010) described talents as well-established patterns of behavior. Onu and Ugwuoke (2009) hypothesized that a person without skills may not be beneficial to himself or to society. This suggests that a female retiree who lacks entrepreneurial abilities in garri processing may not be able to create or run the firm.
Entrepreneurship is defined by Ogundele (2000) as the capacity and desire of people to recognize new economic possibilities and exploit them in the marketplace. The writers emphasized that it is a process including an individual's efforts to discover feasible possibilities in a business environment and acquire and manage the resources required to exploit those chances. Entrepreneurship, according to Ogundele and Olayemi (2002), is the capacity to establish and manage any company, particularly one involving significant initiative and risk. In contrast, practices refer to the actual execution of an action in a real-world setting. It is the use of knowledge to generate real performance in an activity (Yerkes, 1994). According to Encerta (2009), practice is a collection of conventional procedures used to attain a goal in a given sector. It entails putting an idea, strategy, or theory into action. Therefore, entrepreneurial practices, in the context of this research, relate to the conventional processes necessary of women retirees in order to establish and manage garri processing as a company for their sustainable existence. But the issue is: what techniques in garri processing are required for women retirees to participate in it as a business?
Statement of the problem
The observation is that a person's principal source of income ends or decreases after retirement, depending on their prior location of employment. This arrangement exposes the retirees concerned to stress, emotional insecurity, economic instability, and worry of sustaining a sustainable existence. The government, well aware of these issues during retirement, has devised a number of initiatives to examine and improve the living situations of retirees. These include the Public Service Pension Scheme, Private/Public Sector Occupational Schemes, the defunct National Provident Fund, and the Pension Reform Act passed by Obasanjo in June of 2004. Despite the government's efforts, the retirees are not being paid, which worsens their circumstances. In addition, many of them perished from starvation, sickness, and despair (Dike, 2006). In the last seven years, 980 teachers have died while waiting for their retirement payments (Mudiage, 2008). This means that a superior solution is required immediately to preserve the situation. In addition, the researchers saw garri processing as a superior choice for women retirees since it is culturally biased towards women, less physically demanding, less time intensive, and needs minimal accomodation and investment. In addition, the processing of oil bean seeds is left in the hands of elderly women whose output falls short of market demand. The researchers' literature review and visits to skill acquisition centers in the state revealed that there are no documented entrepreneurial methods in garri processing that might be utilized to teach Enugu's retired women for a sustainable living.
Objective of the study
The study's aims are as follows:
Determine the planning procedures required by female retirees in Enugu state for the production of garri.
to determine the procedures required by women retirees in Enugu state for the processing and sale of garri in order to maintain a sustainable livelihood.
The study posed the following research question:
In preparing for the processing of garri in the state of Enugu, what practices are required of women who are retired?
In the state of Enugu, what procedures are required for the processing of garri by retired women?
What measures are necessary for the sustainable selling of processed garri by retired women?
The investigation generated the following hypotheses:
H0: women retirees in Enugu state do not need any planned methods for garri processing.
H1: preparing for the processing of garri in Enugu state necessitates that women retirees adopt certain behaviors.
H0: processing of garri by women pensioners in Enugu state requires no procedures
H2: the processing of garri by Enugu state's female retirees requires certain procedures
H0: sale of processed garri by retired ladies does not need any procedures for sustainable living.
H3: selling of processed garri by retired women requires certain procedures for sustainable livelihoods
Significance of the study
Students, professors, and retiree ladies in the state of Enugu, in particular, will find this research to be of great importance. The research will provide a good understanding of the entrepreneurial skills necessary by female retirees for the sustainable processing of garri. The outcome will assist women and the general public in understanding the necessary planning, processing, and marketing techniques for garri. The paper will also serve as a resource for future researchers who investigate relevant topics.
Scope of the study
The focus of the research includes the entrepreneurial skills necessary by women retirees for the sustainable processing of garri. The research would be confined to women in Enugu state who are retired.
Limitation of the study
The researcher is constrained by the following factors, which restrict the scope of the study:
Insufficient research materials are accessible to the researcher, hence restricting the scope of the investigation.
Due to the researcher's need to integrate the study with other academic activities and tests, the allotted time span does not allow for a broader scope.
Inadequate funding tends to limit the researcher's efficiency in locating relevant resources, literature, or information and in collecting data (internet, questionnaire and interview).
ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS REQUIRED BY WOMEN RETIREES FOR PROCESSING OF GARRI AS SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS IN ENUGU STATE