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The managerial styles of public and private secondary schools were the subject of this study. A total of 200 staff members from chosen secondary schools in Uyo make up the study’s overall population. Questionnaires were utilised by the researcher as the instrument for gathering data.

This study used a descriptive survey research approach. The survey used a total of 133 respondents, including teachers, junior employees, vice principals, and made principals. Simple percentages and frequencies were used to analyse the data, which were presented in tables.

Chapter One


Background Of The Study

The missionaries’ control over the schools was abruptly replaced by that of the government following the Nigerian civil war (1966–1970).

Beginning at that time, the government took complete control of secondary education funding, infrastructure provision, classroom construction and renovation, provision of teaching-learning aids, and teacher recruitment in schools.

In order to establish and manage secondary schools alongside those run by the federal and state governments at a time when the federal government found it impossible to fund the operation of both primary and secondary schools,

the federal government welcomed the contribution of voluntary organisations, communities, and private individuals (Okonkwo, Achunine, and Anukam, 1991).

After receiving approval from the federal government to build schools, private citizens and local communities started building both primary and secondary schools. Finance, infrastructure, teaching and learning aids, hiring, promoting, and disciplining of teaching personnel,

as well as good school administration and management that results in high-quality education, are all obligations fully assumed by private individuals.

According to Okafor (1984), public education is defined as instruction delivered through the channels of public schools. Public schools are now perceived as being those that are run by those who speak for the state or country as a whole, rather than by private persons or organisations.

In other terms, public schools are those that are financed and governed by the state or national government. On the other hand, formal education is referred to as private education when it is provided by a group or body other than the government. Therefore, schools founded by the church, individuals, and charitable organisations fall under this category.

Any social organisation, from the home to the classroom to the country as a whole, is said to depend on efficient management or leadership to function well.

Additionally, the leadership and management philosophies chosen by the top executives determine the performance of any organisation, whether official or informal.

As a result, in order to effectively manage an organisation, a leader may, among other things, embrace a certain leadership style or combine many types that will enable him to accomplish the goals and objectives of the company.

When it comes to leadership, private schools appear to be more autocratic whereas public schools tend to be more laissez faire. Additionally, private school heads do better than public school heads, who are less concerned with these issues, in terms of human relation patterns, decision-making patterns, supervision, and communication patterns.

The organisational atmosphere of the organisation is affected by these leadership philosophies. This manifests itself in how students act and how they approach their schoolwork and other classroom activities. regarding the efficiency of the teacher.

If the headmaster’s leadership style conflicts with the teacher’s job and performance, effective teachers may become ineffective. A teacher who is ineffective could also become effective if the principal’s leadership style is deemed to be appropriate.

One of the most important tactics for principals to use in their effort to manage schools effectively is teamwork. They must be strong team players because working as a team also requires them to be team members.

This can be accomplished by establishing committees inside the institution to look into and assess the tactics in order to determine whether they are being used in secondary schools both public and private. It is crucial that the principle, who oversees the operation of the school, be held accountable for its performance.

Therefore, achieving high academic achievement in public secondary schools depends on principals carrying out their management duties effectively. This supports the idea that the principal’s competent management and proper organisation are crucial in fostering academic success.

There is a difference between leaders and managers, claims Bass (1990). He asserts that, in contrast to managers, who normally carry out tasks related to planning, research, organising, and control, leaders inspire others, offer emotional support, and work to encourage employees to unite around a shared purpose.

They also produce an organization’s vision and strategic plan. This indicates that the administration of the principals is crucial, especially when it comes to the students’ education.

The management philosophies of the principals are crucial because they will have a significant impact on how well the educational system functions.

This directs the course of our research. Nasongo and Lydia (2009) claim that there is a problem with teachers’ competency and instructional issues, and that only administrators with effective management styles will be able to fix it.

Statement Of The Problem

There have been incidents of the Nigerian educational standard declining when the government took over school administration.

According to Okonkwo, Achunine, and Anukam (1991), this lowered standard is manifested in students’ and pupils’ declining academic performance, indiscipline, and moral laxity.

According to Okonkwo et al. (1991), among other things, the inability to develop a useful school curriculum to meet the social needs and aspirations of the recipients, teachers’ ineffectiveness, inadequate government funding of education, and inadequate manpower are all contributing factors to Nigeria’s declining standard of education.

Of all these, the heads’ subpar leadership has been the main contributor to the decline in educational standards, which justifies this study’s inquiry.

The issue is: Which leadership philosophies do public and private school heads use? What are the distinctions between secondary public and private school administration styles? Finally, how have these management approaches impacted Nigeria’s educational standards?

Objectives of the Study

The investigation’s goals are to;

Learn about the management decision-making process in secondary public and private schools.

Determine the human relations management style in secondary public and private schools.

Learn about the management communication style in secondary public and private schools.

Research Hypotheses

The researcher developed the following research hypotheses in order to successfully complete the study:

H0: Neither public nor private secondary schools have a managerial decision-making structure.

H1: Both public and private secondary schools have management decision-making patterns.

H02: Neither public nor private secondary schools have a management communication structure.

H2: Both public and private secondary schools have a management communication style.

Significance Of The Study

This study is significant because its results would show the specific leadership style of headmasters that best supports the performance of instructors and students.

The headmasters can adopt the best leadership style for motivating teachers to perform efficiently with the help of this information, which is helpful for them.

Only by doing this will a good grade of education be achieved. The State Secondary Education Board will use the findings of this study to help it identify headmasters who possess the necessary leadership skills to run schools.

The study will also aid future researchers and anybody with an interest in the leadership philosophies of school administrators in their further investigation of the proposals presented.

Scope and Limitations Of Study

The study’s focus includes both public and private secondary schools’ managerial methods. The study’s scope was constrained due to a constraint the researcher encountered;

a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The researcher’s access to suitable research material limits the investigation.

b) TIME: Because the researcher must juggle the study with other academic obligations and exams, the time allotted for the investigation does not improve wider coverage.


The managerial style of a principle is the manner in which that principal carries out his or her responsibilities. In this study, leadership styles are examined in relation to how administrators consult with teachers when making decisions, interact with them, and assign tasks to them.

In secondary schools, it is hypothesised that principle behaviour in terms of decision-making, communication, and delegating affects teachers’ performance.

Performance of teachers: Refers to involvement in and affiliation with the teaching profession. In this study, instructors’ performance was evaluated based on their ability to design lessons,

assess pupils through the administration of examinations and exercises, and engage in extracurricular school activities.

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