THE SALES AND USAGE OF SECONDHAND CLOTHING AMONG NIGERIANS
THE SALES AND USAGE OF SECONDHAND CLOTHING AMONG NIGERIANS
The purpose of this study is to look into the sales and use of secondhand apparel in the Alimosho local government area of Lagos State. Secondhand clothing sales and usage, as well as social construction. Certain circumstances compel people to make judgements and take acts.
The sale and use of secondhand clothing is a key occupation for which the Igbo people are well-known. With the economic slump, more Igbo people have turned to secondhand apparel shops. Secondhand garment sales are no longer solely Igbo affairs.
Government action has produced inflation, which has deprived individuals of work and even clothing options. As a result, what was formerly the domain of low-income earners and those with little or no education has become appealing to educated as well as middle-income earners.
The growing population of used clothes buyers has resulted in a huge increase in used goods imports, particularly through illicit perceptions. This study used suitably valued questionnaires and in-depth interviews to obtain primary data from 150 respondents from various markets in Alimosho, which are Kantagua.
Igando, Ikotun, and Egbeda markets are being studied statistically. The acquired data was analysed and transcribed using Pearson's Product moment correlations statistical technique to assess the three (3) hypotheses. The results of the three hypotheses tested revealed that: there is a significant relationship between the social construction of sales and usage of secondhand clothing in Alimosho Local Government, consumers attach meaning to the usage of secondhand clothing in Alimosho Local Government, and there are problems associated with the sales and usage of secondhand clothing in Alimosho Local Government area of Lagos metropolis.
The conclusions of this study found that the sale and use of secondhand clothing had a negative impact on the nation's economy, ranging from diseases to the loss of cultural values and unemployment. According to the survey, consumers profit from the sale and use of secondhand apparel due to variables such as durability, quality, and cost.
This survey also revealed that there are numerous locations where consumers can obtain secondhand apparel, each with its own meaning. It advised people to appreciate and support local products if they fit their wants and expectations in the face of rival companies from elsewhere.
No nation advanced overnight; some sacrificed and had an inward orientation that aided their economies. It is preferable to encourage domestic manufacturers of this commodity to do everything possible to make the product feasible and marketable.
That local fabric/garment makers must address the socioeconomic conditions that influence secondhand clothing sellers to prefer imported items. If the local industry is to meet consumer wants successfully, attention should be paid to the consequences for local production and marketing.
The industry should strive for high domestic sales so that exportation contributes only a minor portion to business performance. Domestic sales will virtually completely self-sufficiency for local industries. The nigerian government, through the Standards Organisation of Nigeria (SONs), must supervise the quality of locally made apparel to ensure that both domestic and international consumers are not dissatisfied.
Finally, awareness campaigns and workshops must be launched to educate and reorient both producers and consumers. A research and development institute that will oversee this industry should also be established or made more functional if one already exists.
HISTORY OF THE STUDY
The social construction of secondhand clothing sales and consumption is a current issue in Nigeria that cannot be overstated. Secondhand clothes (SHC) originated with wealthy westerners donating their outmoded apparel to charitable organisations (Dougherty, 2004; Slotterback, 2007).
Larger organisations go through donations to add to their stock stores, then sell the excess to secondhand clothing dealers to earn revenue for assistance programmes. According to Slotterback (2007), around 80% of donated apparel is often sold to secondhand clothing stores.
The merchants sort the used clothes by condition and then categorise it into groups, which they subsequently package in bales with prices varying according to the quality of the contents. Clothing merchants from importing countries visit exporters' offices to inspect the quality, negotiate the price, pay for the bales, and transport the clothing to the place of origin (Olumide, 2011).
It has recently been discovered that Nigeria and Kenya are two of the top importers of secondhand apparel (locally known as “Okirika,” “Benddown Boutique,” and “Tokunbo,” respectively, in Sub Sahara Africa.
According to Dawson et al (2006), purchasing behaviour is a set of attitudes that characterise the patterns of consumer choices. Aside from the key internal elements that are known to influence purchasing behaviour, there are a number of external situational settings that influence consumer choices.
Consumer behaviour is a combination of customers' purchasing awareness and external incentives that are likely to result in behavioural modification. Culture influences how individual customers acquire and use used things, as do norms, ideologies, settlement, conventions, religion, festivity, class, lifestyle, and other subcultures.
Individuals and families are currently required to build sustainable lifestyles. One of the most significant aspects of sustainable living is the consumption of sustainable apparel and textiles. Maintainable consumption is defined as consuming resources in a way that minimises environmental impact while sustaining human well-being (OECD, 2008). Maintainable clothing or fashion consumption is the usage of clothing for purposes other than utilitarian necessity while allowing the wearer to look good.
to address the demands of future generations (Nordic Initiatives, Clean and Ethical (NICE), 2012). Secondhand Clothing Trade (SHCT) accounts for a negligible percentage of total world clothing trade (0.5%), with more than 30% of imports going to Sub Sahara African (SSA) nations (Baden & Barber, 2005). Despite being surpassed by Asian imports to Africa, the use of secondhand clothing remains significant.
According to Mangieri (2006) and Slotterback (2007), the global Secondhand Clothing trade (SHCT) is now worth more than USD 200 billion per year, with almost every country in the world participating in it as exporters, processors, re exporters, or importers.
There are used clothing markets in over 100 countries worldwide (Slotterback, 2007). The United States, the Netherlands, and Japan are important exporters in SCHT, whereas developing nations such as Nigeria are major importers and consumers (Baden and Barber, 2005).
1.1STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The last economic crisis impacted practically every sector of the Nigerian economy.One of the businesses that people are getting into is the selling and use of secondhand apparel, which is gaining traction in Nigeria. One of the key factors driving people to sell and buy used apparel all around the world is the rapid increase in population unemployment.
Nigeria as a country faces numerous challenges, including poverty, unemployment, a lack of resources, and poor pay income, which forces people to sell and wear old items.
In most cases, the importation of worn clothing causes a downward change in the demand curve in the new garment business. According to studies (Slotterback 2007), there are numerous causes for the selling and use of secondhand apparel.
Individual unemployment is number one.
2..Poverty, both absolute and relative.
3. Low wages and a scarcity of better job opportunities.
The following questions were attempted to be answered in this study.
i.What are the implications associated with people's sales and use of secondhand clothing?
ii.What are the motivations for people to buy and sell used clothing?
What types of people buy secondhand clothing?
iv.What business tactics are involved in the sale of used clothing?
v.What are the issues involved with the selling and use of used clothing?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary goal of this research is to look into the social construction of second-hand clothing sales and consumption in the Alimosho local government district of Lagos. This is, however, divided into the following sub-goals:
i. To discover whether there is any significance associated to the sale and use of second-hand apparel by residents of Lagos' Alimosho local government area.
ii. Determine the reasons why people buy and sell used clothing.
iii. To identify the types of persons who buy secondhand apparel in the Alimosho local government region of Lagos.
iv. Recognise the commercial techniques involved in the sale of used clothing.
v. To investigate the issues related with the selling and use of secondhand apparel.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Individuals have discovered that thrift stores often reflect the community in which they reside and quality clothing with the tags still in some wealthier neighbourhoods, so this study will be of great importance to policymakers in the sense that it will be an assistance to make rightful and necessary policy that will encourage and favour the Nigerian textile industry.
Furthermore, Goodwill was discovered to be expensive in terms of thrift store goods or clothing being less priced than new ones. Their prices are undoubtedly higher, but it appears that they do a better job of filtering out junk, spouses frequently believe that the level of income determines purchasing power, researchers and the general public in the sense that it will assist them in understanding the adverse effect of social construction of sales of used clothing, causes and solutions to consumption.
The Nigeria Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) emphasises that it is an ideal vehicle for examining not just the relationships between secondhand clothes usage and health and demographic outcomes. This research will aid in the resolution of current or existing problems affecting Nigerian textile companies.
It will also assist the government in terms of planning and budget revenue in the appropriate ways, taking into account all factors such as what the people desire. This study will make numerous ideas and recommendations that will help to reduce these issues and their attendance implications.
Students completing research projects on related topics will be directed because the findings and recommendations will act as a map, leading them in the right direction. A study of this type will introduce the researcher to the tough and difficult exercise of writing a project, which requires a lot of concentration, handwork, and patience.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study aims to analyse the social construction of second-hand clothing sales and usage in Alimosho local government area, Lagos metropolitan. The focus specifically addresses the social construction of second-hand clothes sales and consumption in the Lagos State communities of Iyana-Ipaja, Egbeda, and Ikotun. This includes:
a. Kantagwa Market's Iyana Ipaja
b. Ikotun (Market of Ikotun)
c. Egbeda (Market of Egbeda)
Because of the presence of significant markets in that area, such as Ikotun BRT Terminal and Kontogora market, the researcher discovered that most people living in the aforementioned area prefer secondhand apparel to new clothing. This research study, like any other, is likely to have limitations; nonetheless, these constraints have no substantial effect on the study's validity. These are some examples:
Insufficient funds to complete the study. It should be mentioned that money will be required for transportation to the field, typing, and printing, among other things, and a lack of it (money) may interfere with the proper scrutiny of this study. Inadequate information from respondents is another key aspect that may have an impact on this research exercise. Furthermore, a lack of or insufficient time to complete the research work must be addressed as one of the limits of this study.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
To have a better grasp of the numerous terminology associated with and used in this research project, it is required to clarify these terms briefly in terms of their general meaning and specific contextual applicability to the topic under discussion:
SALES: A two-party transaction in which the buyer obtains things (tangible or intangible), services, and/or assets in return for money.
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION: The consumer's view of any social phenomenon and the meaning associated to it. You may be unaware of the concept of social construction. Depending on your gender, colour, and social class, you are somewhat segregated. Race, class, and gender are all meaningless. They have meaning only because society gives them meaning. Social construction refers to how society groups people and favours certain groups over others.
SECONDHAND CLOTHING: Clothing that has previously belonged to someone else. Furthermore, a used or second-hand good is one that is purchased by or otherwise transferred to a second or later end user. A used item might also simply suggest that it is no longer in the same condition as when it was transferred to the present owner.
When “used” refers to an item that has served its purpose (such as a used nappy), it is usually referred to as garbage. Used goods can be given as “hand-me-downs” to friends and family for free, or they can be sold for a fraction of their original worth at garage sales or church bazaar fundraisers.
USAGE: Usage is described as the manner in which something is utilised, or the right way to use something, such as a term, phrase, or tool.