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Radio is regarded as an important modern medium because of its characteristics. It is cheap and adorable for large sections of populations everywhere. Its content is inexpensive to create and transmit. It is accessible because it does not require literacy.
Listening to it is convenient while its programming is flexible. It can reach far and remote places where there is no access to other
mass media. These characteristics have helped radio to perform important developmental roles, especially in the area of education.
According to Bosch (2007), in the absence of other forms of media such as television and newspapers, radio has proven to be a
powerful and vital means of entertainment and communication that guarantees community involvement in the communication
process. Further researches show that radio is renowned for providing communities with up-to-date local and international
information in their own languages accompanied by various music genres that are compatible with diverse cultural inclinations
(Mmusi, 2002, p.3; National Community Radio Forum, 1993, p.10).

The development of digital radio and its capacity to integrate or network with various Information and Communication
Technologies (ICTs), through convergence, has arguably placed radio as the world’s most successful ICT to date that reaches millions
of listeners everyday (National Community Radio Forum, 1993, p6). While the traditional functions of national radio, especially
Public Broadcasting Service, cannot be underestimated, community radio serves as a “niche” of the media landscape that serves as
a primary source of reliable information for the entire population (Dunaway, 2002, p.4).

As such, the sector has continued to provide
news and information relevant to the needs of community members in the form of a medium which empowers them politically,
socially and economically, through locally produced and oriented media content (Wigston, 2001; Fraser & Estrada, 2001).

This is
evident in the kind of programming that reflects people’s needs with regard to education, information, and entertainment to all
language and cultural groups in the country (Mmusi, 2002;Teer-Tomaselli, 1995).

Although radio is not a new phenomenon, private ownership, control of programming, content and operation is relatively a recent
phenomenon. It has been gaining strength throughout the world in recent years most especially in developing countries.

As a result,
private FM and community radio has attracted the attention of many international development organizations as an optimal
resource to be developed in the struggle for democracy, the fight against disease, and the preservation of local language and culture
(Blackson, 2005).


Historically, radio broadcasting began in Nigeria in 1933 as a redistribution of service by the Post and Telegraph Department, which
received and relayed BBC news through what was called RADIFUSSION (Radio Diusion). Eight years later in 1951 the Nigerian
Broadcasting Service (NBS) was established, marking the birth of true broadcasting in the country. Along the line, NBS transformedto Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) in 1956, which was position to have an external service called (Voice of Nigeria) in 1961.
NBC is now the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN), restricted to domestic broadcasting , VON was excised from FRCN in
1990, given full autonomy and exclusive power to broadcast externally by radio from Nigeria (Okpanachi,2008; Ebuna 2009).
In 1939, a station was opened in Ibadan, Port-Harcourt station was commissioned in 1949 while between 1945 to 1949 stations had
been opened in towns like Kaduna, Enugu, Abeokuta, Ijebu-Ode, Jos, Zaria, Calabar and port-Harcourt as relay stations.
In Nigeria, radio broadcasting industry have been spreading very fast, motivated by several factors such as language, politics,
religion and education. Technical and technological reasons should be added as these have enabled a very fast proliferation of radio
stations in Nigeria, during the last thirty years. Each of the Nigerian states opted for own radio and TV stations, as well as the
universities. Radio stations have been established in Nigeria at a rate of five (5) stations a year. Nigeria has the fourth largest radio
network in the world, with constantly growing sta and the figure of imported programmes going constantly down (Egbuna, 2009).
Prior to the circulation of National Broadcasting Commission Decree No. 38 of 1992 by the Federal Government on August 24, 1992,
the ownership, control and operation of broadcasting stations in Nigeria was the exclusive preserve of various governments Federal, State, and Regional. There is an increasing choice of radio channels, and the awareness it help creates increase numbers of
community based stations for the educational and information need of society (Umeh, 1989).


The first Frequency Modulation (FM) in Nigeria was commissioned on April 22, 1977. It was known then as Radio Nigeria 2 (Metro
FM). A year later when NBC was re-organized, the state stations were handed over to State Governments and NBC was le with only
Por-tHarcourt, Ibadan, Enugu and Kaduna which became Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) (Akingbulu, 2010). Radio
broadcasting in Nigeria was carried out mainly on medium and shortwave bands until April 1977 when the FRCN launched Radio
Nigeria 2, AM/ FM stereo in Port-Harcourt on the FM band. The FM band is now the most widely used in the country as most radio
stations in Nigeria 1992 following which a regulator the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) was established and private radio
stations emerged.


Community radio has been defined as radio broadcasting situated within the sphere of community media. Community media
according to Oso, (2003:4) is made up of localized media that serves as an alternative to mainstream media as well as the profit
motivated commercialized media. To Fuller (2007:224-226), community media may be defined as those media which members of
the community have access for information, education, and entertainment when they want and community participates as
planners, producers, and performers, supplementing the mainstream media on both organizational and content levels. Thus,
among the various types of community media, radio is scholarly considered as the perfect medium for mass communication.
Despite the sluice advantages of radio as being one of the cheapest and accessible mass communications technologies, some
stations still struggle to survive. In Nigeria and elsewhere, many community radio stations operate in situations of dire need despite
having been set up confident that local needs would ensure community support in the form of volunteering, in-kind support and
donations (Simmering & Fairbairn, 2007:7).In addition, some poor communities faced with high unemployment and lack of access to
infrastructure view the sector as providers of income and resources such as gaining access to telephones, photocopiers, the
Internet, training opportunities and above all, paid work rather than as initiatives needing community support. For example, “the
early experiences of community radio projects in South Africa, where volunteers rebelled, staged sit-ins and strikes, stole
equipment and CDs, or simply abandoned stations when they realized there was insuicient income to pay salaries, are testimony
to this” (Simmering & Fairbairn, 2007, p.7). Due to such circumstances, there are community radio stations that are deeply rooted in
rural communities and serve community needs and interests, but have abandoned their community origins and are little more than
jukeboxes (Simmering & Fairbairn, 2007, p.10).
Regardless of the legal structure, the policies and objectives of community media are articulated with a strong input from
stakeholders within the community. Community members have both a sense of ownership and a real ability to shape the station to
suit their wishes and needs. Its specific focus is to make its audience the main protagonists, by their involvement in all aspects of its
management, and programme production, and providing them with a programming that will help in the development and social
advancement of their community (Fraser & Estrada, 2001, p.4)


Community radio stations oer concrete means for public participation and defense for cultural diversity. “Participation is the
engine of democracy and community radio is a tool for participation” (Jordan, 2006, p.1). The strengths of community radio, lies
mainly in the horizontality and diversity of its operational structure. Its organizational structure is an expression of the bottom up
framework, which is reflective of a community network of universes, multiple languages, and expressions of dierences. This
diversity actualizes the representation of the excluded, the survival of historic memories, of cultural diversity and an equitable
approach to addressing community radio issues (Girard, 2007, p.2; Jordan, 2006, p.1).
Community radio station is based in its community and accountable to it. Usually the community is defined geographically, although
its size can range from a small town, to a city, or a vast rural area covering thousands of square kilometers. Some community
stations can also serve particular communities of interest such as women, youth or linguistic and cultural minorities (Girard, 2007).
Community stations are owned and controlled by the community. In some cases, the legal owner is the community itself, via an
association established for the purpose. In other cases, the legal owner is a not-for-profit group, a cooperative, an NGO, or a
municipality, acting on behalf of the community (Girard, 2007, p.1; Fraser & Estrada, 2001, p.4).
To consider today’s role and use of campus community radio raises the questions of its place in new African and Nigerian media
landscape, and in particular in the radio environment marked by deregulation and the end of broadcast monopolies that has
proliferated the radio landscape and so position it for a more eective educational broadcast programming with over 187 functional
radio stations.
Even though Nigeria has opened up its airwaves and allowed for independent commercial and community radio stations, there are
legal and political loopholes for community radio stations. However, this exception can be addressed with clearly defined three-tier
broadcasting system, namely public, commercial and community. In addition, there has been tremendous de factor political support
for the establishment of rural radio stations, and other forms of community radio. This may have a positive impact on the socio-
economic and educational development of thee host community as well as receiving communities surrounding the stations but
there is the air of fear of the stations being used by politicians to promote acrimony limiting the licenses to University and other
educational campus in the country.
Community radio stations plays vital role in building vibrant communities , in mobilizing groups to action by informing and
empowering citizens, in giving voice to the marginalized groups of society, and in bringing community needs to the attention of
local and national governments. The scope of the actual and potentials impact of community radio is wide-ranging, as are the
challenges associated with community radio development.
In the view of CIMA-Centre for International Media Assistance report of 2007, the power of community radio to mobilize groups and
bring change to societies is well recognized. Similarly, AMARC-World Association of Community Broadcasters Report (1998) which
stated that although many African countries have opened up the airwaves allowing both independent community stations to exist
alongside state owned entitles, there are few laws such as the one which safeguard community broadcasting per sec. furthermore,
laws which liberalized the airwaves, make no specific reference to campus community broadcasting. The NBC (Licensing)
Regulations of Act of 1992, which liberalized the airwaves in Nigeria made no mention of community broadcasting whatsoever but
has allowed the development of campus community broadcasting, such as University of Port-Harcourt, New- Site Campus 88.5FM.
Thus, there is need for raising awareness among communication policy makers on the role and benefit of campus community radio
stations to Nigeria socio-cultural, economic, educational and technological development, as well as in the host/ receiving
communities, and monitoring to ensure the radio station delivers as it should. This research hopes to evaluate the aairs of the
UNIPORT Community FM with the hope it will draw the attention of the authorities to its challenges and be useful in soliciting for
the necessary assistance the radio station requires to function effectively and efficiently.


The Nigeria broadcast media industry which is Africa’s largest and the world’s fourth largest, media industry needs to strive not only
in meeting with the competitiveness of the industry in the area of listenership, but strive for excellence in both qualitative and
quantitative media content and programming to meet its target audience.

(Simmering & Fairbairn, 2007, p.7).In order to fully support this loy aspiration, there is the need for the mass media to serve not only as an outlet for just information dissemination, but also for societal development, socialization of norms and values as well as agent of ethic and technological
rejuvenation in the face of mounting pressure from popular culture through the media that seems to be eroding communal life and
virtues around us.

Insofar as this pressure remains, the prospect of the development of eective campus community radio operations in Nigeria seem
to hang in the balance and that is why a study of this nature is necessary in order to unravel motivations that exist in establishing
campus radio and also to find out the challenges and prospects of established community radios in Nigeria universities with
delimitation on UNIPORT 88.5(University of Port-Harcourt, Port-Harcourt Campus Community radio station).


The main objective of this study is to carry out a comparative analysis of the operation and management of the UNIQUE FM
community radio station with respect to the factors that influenced the establishment of the station as a campus community radio
should be, bringing out its challenges and prospects. Thus, the researcher hopes to achieve the following


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