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Chapter one


Background of the study.

Whitehead (2002) described education as the transmission of a society’s cultural ideals from one generation to the next.

Bello (2002) defined education as the collection of all the processes by which a person develops abilities, attitudes, and forms of positive conduct in the society in which he lives.

Education can be seen in terms of formal, informal, and non-formal education. A complete education cannot be obtained solely through classroom instruction.

A considerable portion of education can be received outside of the classroom. Such sources include the home, peer groups, travel, and other non-classroom settings.

Formal education refers to any type of teaching-learning process that follows a commonly established and consistent set of rules, organisation, and patterns. In other words, formal education entails schooling. Formal education is special in that it has control, a curriculum, regular funding, staffing, and exam evaluation.

Information education is part of socialisation. This is the process of integrating individuals into a society’s structured way of life and established traditions.

Informal education begins in early childhood and lasts throughout life. Informal education, unlike formal education, does not have a structured curriculum, laws, teaching methods, control mechanisms, evaluation procedures, or highly educated personnel.

Schools, parents, classmates, and the media all contribute to the informal education process. Learning occurs mostly through interaction with people in a given situation.

Non-formal education refers to the acquisition of activities and skills outside of the conventional school setting. Non-formal education, like formal education, can be strategically organised, staffed, and funded.

Business education is a subset (specialised education) of the whole of formal and informal education.

For a proper understanding of the researcher’s discussion in this paper, it should be noted that in Nigeria, commercial subjects, business education, or business studies all mean the same thing and are grouped under the vocational and technical education curriculum of the Nigeria school system

under the 6-3-3-4 system as provided in the national education policy 1977 revised 1981. Business studies is classified as a separate subject within the pre-vocational category of disciplines.

According to Nanassy (2003), business education is a component of comprehensive education that equips students with the required skills, information, attitudes, and values to enter a variety of occupational fields.

Ulinfun (2001) also described business education as education for business or training in business skills necessary for employment in business offices and clerical vocations, as well as business policy analysis.

Business education in Nigeria began slowly and developed slower than other forms of education since the introduction of formal education in this country completely ignored business education.

Even when efforts were made to recognise it, the image was very poor since the public perceived it as education for the disabled, dropouts, never-do-wells, and mentally ill.

Colonial masters introduced the concept of business education to Nigeria as early as 1882. The main goal was to get individuals to interpret the scary book known as the Bible

as well as to work as clerks and interpreters of the Holy Book, thus their education was limited to information and skills such as typing and filling, which would help them achieve these objectives.

Training in vocation business studies, subsequently known as commercial education, began around 1930 with the founding of a clerical training centre in Oshogbo, in the erstwhile western Region, now Osun State. The center’s objective was to teach clerical officers, who were in high demand at the time to fill office roles.

By 1955, many commercial secondary schools had been created in the western region, with subjects such as shorthand, typewriting, and business procedures being taught.

The Ashby report was the first to address the understanding and impact of business education on the economy. In its 1960 report, the Ashby commission noted an imbalance in our educational system as well as a shortage of skilled people in our businesses and offices.

Then he advised that commercial courses be offered in schools, including, among others. English, shorthand, and typing. The report also recommended that technical institutes offer full-time post-secondary general commercial courses. The goal of this was then maintained to prepare stenographers and junior clerks for advancement to more responsible positions.

Later, the curriculum conferences of 1969 recognise business education as an essential topic of study in an expanding industrial economy. The curriculum conference’s recommendations resulted in the construction of a new business education curriculum in Nigeria, which included elementary, secondary, technical, and university education.

The new strategy has a significant impact on the growth of vocational business education; for example, business studies is classified as a pre-vocational topic.

At the junior secondary level, business studies is taught as an integrated topic that covers all vocational business sectors, including five basic subjects: bookkeeping, commerce, office practice, shorthand, and typewriting.

However, in the senior secondary school level, business courses can be studied independently. in this level, students choose a career path that they are likely to pursue further in a college of technology or polytechnic for further professional training or at a university.

The primary goal of business education is to prepare students for their eventual career path.

The new business curriculum for junior secondary students is expected to:

1. Provide students with an introduction to the topics that will be presented at a higher level.

2. Develop a strong background and assist shape attitudes towards a chosen job path:

3. Help pupils build an attitude towards a specific profession and plan for a future career in business.

Looking at these aims, we can see that the primary purpose for business education is to prepare students to enter the business world and actively engage as producers and/or consumers of goods and services provided by businesses.

To attain these goals, business professors must be good at teaching and learning business studies.

To be effective, any teaching must take place in an environment of mutual respect and trust between the teacher and the student.

According to Uge (2000), successful or effective teaching should follow specific principles. Such as

1. Learning is an active process that the learner must participate in. That is, learning is more successful when students participate in whatever learning activities the teacher has chosen.

2. A keen understanding of objectives will maintain interest and inspire endurance. The objective should be clearly stated. The goal of any teaching is to influence people’s behaviour; that is, whatever methods a teacher uses must ignite desire, create purpose, and steer thinking and action towards certain goals.

3. The students’ lives should serve as a starting point. That is, learning should begin with what is known and progress to the unknown, from simple to complicated, or from familiar to new.

4. Teaching aids encourage learning. The teacher should try to make proper use of audio-visual aids. Free usage of a chalkboard is quite valuable. Teachers should employ illustrations, which do not have to be pictorial. It comprises explanations provided using appropriate wording.

The eight sample secondary schools in Mainland Local Government are listed below. Namely:-

1. Aje Comprehensive Secondary.

2. Akoka High School (Yaba)

3. Birrel Avenue.

4. Eletu Odibo Secondary School.

5) Herbert McCaulay

6. Lagos City College, Sabo Yaba

7. Mobolaji Bank Anthony Secondary School.

8) Western College Secondary School

The researcher became interested in exploring the fundamental cause of inefficient business education teaching and learning in Lagos State’s Mainland Local Government Area.

Statement of the Problem

According to the National Policy on Education (1981), by the end of Junior Secondary School, business studies students must have acquired basic knowledge and developed skills that will allow them to continue their education to the senior secondary school stage, completing their six-year secondary education, whereas others are expected to enter the workforce and be employed or self-employed.

The new method attempts to reduce unemployment and school dropout rates. However, due to a dearth of qualified teachers in business education, these well-planned programmes have struggled to achieve their goals.

Other causes include the students’ immature age when they complete junior secondary school. They have not been introduced to the working world and will struggle to survive there. The school’s timetable does not give appropriate time for the teaching of business subjects.

Also, there are incorrect methods of teaching business studies that result in students learning more theory than practice, preventing them from acquiring the necessary skills. Students’ persistent interest in shorthand is lacking, as is the availability of suitable office equipment such as typewriters, duplicating machines, photocopiers, and so on.

There is also a population growth in our secondary schools, which inevitably leads to classroom overcrowding. These and other issues have rendered business education inefficient in terms of acquiring technology skills.

The purpose of the study

The goal of this study was to identify the elements that influence the effective teaching and learning of business studies at the Junior Secondary School in Mainland Local Government. Specifically, the study aims to

1. Examine the educational and professional qualifications required for instructors to excel.

2. Determine the amount of periods allotted to business subjects on the school schedule.

3. Examine the teaching tools and textbooks that teachers and students use to help them learn and teach business studies.

4. Determine the suitability of materials and equipment for the teaching of business studies.

5. Determine the availability of functional libraries.

Significance of the Study

The study is critical for students, instructors, schools, colleges, and the ministry of education to understand how to improve the quality of business education topics in secondary schools in Lagos State’s Mainland Local Government Area. Specifically, the study:

Encourage pupils to adopt a positive attitude towards business courses and to put more effort into their learning in order to improve their performance.

It equips teachers with the ingredients they need to effectively teach and master business studies.

It will enable the school to provide the necessary support, such as funding, for effective business teaching and learning.

Finally, it enables the ministry of education to supply enough and relevant instructional text resources for effective business education.

Research Question

Business studies, which provide pupils with the fundamental knowledge and skills needed to continue their education in secondary schools, are not successfully taught in junior secondary schools in Lagos State’s Mainland Local Government Area. This has led to questions like:

1. What qualifications are required for business studies teachers?

2. To what extent are the business study sessions adequate?

3. What instructional tools and texts are required to enhance the teaching and learning of business studies?

4. What resources and equipment are required for teaching business or business studies?

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