Teachers are regarded as the basic resources in education and curriculum implementation. The teacher is the one that would translate educational objectives into knowledge and skill and transfer them to students in the classroom. Teachers hold the key to education by deciding what students should learn, developing appropriate learning units, establishing functional classroom cultures, effectively organizing and managing classroom, planning and delivering focused, structured and engaging lesson, and communicating as clearly as possible with their students so as to bring about desired outcome from them.
The teacher occupies a central position in the educational process because he/she is responsible for setting up learning opportunities/ experiences, utilising relevant teaching skills and appropriate methods and media to bring learners in a face to face encounter with learning activities that will enable them acquire the desired knowledge, skills and values (Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria, TRCN 2005). Sanders (2004), for example, states that the “single largest factor affecting academic growth of populations of students is differences in effectiveness of individual classroom teachers” (p. 27). Davis (2012) also believed “more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor” (p. 63).
The term effectiveness can be conceived as the ability to produce desired outcome. Relating to education, teacher effectiveness simply means the ability of a teacher to produce desired results in the execution of his/her professional role or duties as a teacher. According to Mbakwem (2001), teacher effectiveness can be defined as the extent to which a classroom teacher performs his/her instructional roles given the necessary facilities such that students’ learning will be maximized. It could be inferred that, for students’ learning to be maximized in our schools, the teachers must be effective in the execution of their duties.
It is not out of place to reason that certain factors within the work place can influence teaching effectiveness of teachers. This is as observed by Mc Gregor theory X that an average worker dislike work and as such must be monitored or supervised to bring out the best in him/her. This is because insufficient supervision practices in schools may engender indiscipline which is one of the problems facing the secondary school systems today. Without proper and effective supervision of schools, effective instruction may not be carried out, hence, the need for school administrators’ to carry out instructional supervision regularly on school personnel.
Irem (2013) noted that the idea of monitoring and reviewing the teaching and learning processes makes supervision of instruction imperative in our educational institution in order for these instructions to live up to expectation and to realize the objectives set before them. The National Policy on Education (2013) sees supervision as an aspect to ensure quality and continuous monitoring of instruction and other educational services. There are multiple purposes for the supervision of teachers. The most common purposes are quality control to monitor teacher effectiveness, professional development to encourage teacher growth, remediation of weak teachers, validation of teacher strengths, and empowerment to develop teacher autonomy (Beerens, 2000). Instruction supervision has been identified as a means to enhance the performance of teachers in professional roles, making appropriate decisions and providing high quality services. It also requires the teacher to be in constant pursuit of better understanding and draws all participant of school teaching – learning process together (Kutsyuruba, 2011).
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