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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS

ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIALS OF WASTE TO WEALTH

ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIALS OF WASTE COLLECTION TO WEALTH

Abstract

Municipal solid waste collection, re-use, and recycling have multiple socio-economic and environmental benefits that have not been adequately examined in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The objectives of this research are to: examine the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of waste management entrepreneurs; identify the sources and destinations of recyclable municipal solid waste; analyze the number of waste materials (metal scraps, plastics, and cans) recovered, reused and transported for recycling; identify the type of uses recyclable materials are put into in the study area and examine the socioeconomic benefit of waste re-use and recycling.

A total of 252 scrap metal/plastic collectors, scavengers, and artisanal recyclers were studied using purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Tables, percentages, charts and multiple linear regression techniques were used for the analysis. The results showed that the majority of the waste collectors within the twelve localities of Zaria were less than 20 years old. Generally, the low educational level of the respondents indicates that formal educational qualification is not a major determinant of being an actor in this type of business… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

waste collection

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

The term waste has a different meaning for different people. In general, waste is unwanted for the person who discards it; a product or material that does not have a value anymore for the first user and is therefore thrown away. But unwanted is subjective and the waste could have value for another person in a different circumstance, or even in a different culture (Van de Klundert and Justine, 2001).

There are many large industries that operate primarily or exclusively using waste materials such as paper and metals as their industrial raw materials. In the context of Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM), waste is regarded both as valueless and as a useful material providing a potential source of income. This real value of waste in many low-and middle-income countries (developing countries) is confirmed by the huge informal sector that lives on waste collection and recovery (Van de Klundert and Justine, 2001)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Statement of the Research Problem

In the pursuit of sustainable waste management, the prevention of waste generation is the first priority, followed by waste recovery and safe disposal of waste on the hierarchy of principles for waste management (Figure 1.1). These principles need to be put in practice through joint waste prevention and management measures if growing environmental degradation is to be avoided.

For example, the use of valuable land for waste disposal, the release of harmful substances from landfills and waste transports into air, soil and water… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Objectives of the Study

The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential for municipal solid waste re- use/recycling as waste management strategies in Zaria metropolis to create wealth and promote a sustainable environment. The specific objectives are to:

  • Examine the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of waste management entrepreneurs (WMEs) in the study area… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

LITERATURE REVIEW

Conceptual Issues

  • Scavenging

A waste picker is a person who collects reusable or recyclable materials discarded by others to sell or for personal utilization. Many terms are used to refer to people who salvage recyclables from the waste stream for sale or personal utilization.

These terms include informal resource recoverer, salvager, reclaimer, waste picker, recycler, and scavenger. Although the term scavenger is also commonly used, but many waste pickers find it demeaning due to the implied comparison  with  animals  (Samson,  2008)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

  • Re-use

Re-use is a process by which discarded materials like plastic bottles, sachet water bags, glass, paper, woody furniture, scrap metals, etc. in their original form are utilized or sold to other users who need them. In other words, re-use is simply using materials for something other than the purpose for which they were originally designed (Bill, 2009). Re-use can be a creative process for using an item rather than throwing it away… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Conceptual Framework

There is no over-arching approach or single solution identified that has completely answered the question of what to do with solid waste both in developed and developing countries. The attitudes of people in different countries vary regarding waste management practice.

The diversity of communities and their waste is one reason why no single approach to waste management has been accepted as “the best” method. Since there is no preferred method, every community must create its own “best approach” in dealing with its waste. However, all communities have the same alternatives (Palczynski and Scotia, 2002)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

METHODOLOGY

This section discusses the various methods that were employed in generating data for the study. It focuses on the types of data needed, the sources of data, the sampling design, and the methods of data analysis. A reconnaissance survey was conducted to generate information on the following:

Types of data required

  • Socio-economic and demographic characteristics of WMEs;
  • Cost of conveying recyclable and reusable materials to destinations;… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Sources of Data

  • Primary Source of Data

Questionnaire and structured interviews as well as, informal discussions and observations were used to collect data from twelve localities in the study area. The selected localities include: Samaru, Palladan, Basawa, Gyllesu, Muchia, Chikaji, Wusasa, Dogarawa, Sabon-Gari, Tudun Wada, Gaskiya and Zaria city (see Figure 3.1).

These are expected to give an understanding of the activity of waste management entrepreneurs (WMEs), the reasons for their actions and the intended outcomes of the actions… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

  • Secondary Source of Data

Additional information was obtained from available literature to enrich the theoretical conceptualization of the work. The available literatures include: related books, journals, published and unpublished texts… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

RESULTS FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

  • Socio-Economic and Demographic Characteristics of Respondents

A total number of 252 solid waste collectors were involved in the study. Their socio-economic characteristics have inference on solid waste collection and were discussed under age, gender, educational and marital categories and religion. Other issues are income and ethnic composition.

  • Age of respondents

The study established that the majority of the waste collectors (engaged inn waste collection), about 46.4% within the twelve localities of Zaria, were less than 20 years old. Those between 21-30 years account for 34.5% while the least is 1.2% which covers 60 years and above. About 10.3%, 5.6%, 2.0%, are between 31-40 years, 41-50 years, and 51 – 60 year respectively. While all age groups are represented, the majority are youths, accounting for nearly half of the sampled population (Table 4.1).

Table 4.1: Age of respondents

Age

No. of respondents

Percentage (%)

< 20

117

46.4

21-30

87

34.5

31-40

26

10.3

41-50

14

5.6

51-60

5

2.0

> 60

3

1.2

Total

252

100

Source: Field survey, 2012

  • Sex of respondents

The survey shows that 82.9% of the respondents who were males mostly involved in all waste activities (scrap metal and plastic bottle collection, scavenging and artisanal recycling). Furthermore, about 17.1% of the respondents were females that engaged in plastic bottle collection and cans collection. None of the women was involved in scrap metal collection and artisanal recycling… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

WASTE COLLECTION, REUSE AND RECYCLING

  • Sources of waste

Table 4.3 shows that 71.8% of waste collectors (engaged in waste collection) collect from multiple sources comprising households, institutions, landfill/dumpsites, restaurants etc compared to single sourcing of usable materials. Among the single sources, however, 15.1%, 10.7% and 2.4% respectively source from institutions, restaurants and households.

Using multiple sources by the scavengers, artisanal recyclers, plastic bottle and scrap metal collectors provide a variety and large quantity of recyclable materials which improve their income. It is important to note that, especially in institutions or households, scavengers purchase valuable waste from the owners; this is however based on weighing the recyclables to know the exact quantity (see Plate I and II).

But in the words  of  some  of  the  respondents  ― negotiation  at  times  does  exist  depending  on  the  quantity seen with the eye and not on measurement using weighing balance‖. The waste generated can be ascribed to the urban standard of living in the 12 localities sampled. Generally, manufactured products in iron, aluminum and plastic packaging are affordable and consumed by residents in the areas leading to waste materials.

Table 4.3: Source(s) of waste material

Source(s) No. of respondents Percentage (%)
Households

6

2.4

Restaurants

27

10.7

Institutions

38

15.1

Multiple sources

181

71.8

Total 252

100

Source: Field survey, 2012

Plate I: Young waste depot worker weighing scrap metals in Tudun Wada.

Source: Field survey, 2012

(Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

  • Destinations of retrieved waste materials

Table 4.5 revealed that as high as 83.7% dispose of their materials within Zaria. These are mainly scavengers, plastic and scrap metal collectors. Moreover, some plastic collectors as stated in Table 4.7 and products from artisanal recyclers are spatially distributed or utilized both within and outside the study area… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Table 4.5: Destinations of Retrieved Waste Materials

Destination(s)

No. of respondents

Percentage (%)

Zaria

211

83.7

Lagos

28

11.1

Kano

10

4.0

Kano and Lagos

3

1.2

Total

252

100

Source: Field survey, 2012

waste collection

Plate VIII: Uploading a truck for transportation out of Zaria at Samaru

(Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

CHALLENGES IN WASTE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

All the respondents claimed that the government has not in any way come to their aid in terms of provision of a functional recycling plant in Zaria; trucks that will convey the valuable materials to the required destination at a subsidized rate; protectors especially to scavengers or even pay every individual involved in waste management for keeping the environment clean… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusion

By adopting the wealth aspect from waste collection or treating solid wastes as resources, in terms of waste management strategy has effectively become not only a service but an instrument for alleviating poverty. The government should not only conceive waste management as a means of service delivery but a war against poverty and a poor living environment.

The future prospect of scrap metal/plastic collection, scavenging, and artisanal recycling is envisaged to be prosperous and can offer livelihood opportunities for poor people if the process of the collection remains unaltered… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Recommendations

The study has shown the characteristics of solid waste re-use/recycling as a waste management strategy as well as the potentials to create wealth and promote sustainable waste management in Zaria metropolis. Based on such findings, recommendations were developed to promote solid waste re-use/recycling situation in Zaria metropolis… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

 

REFERENCES

Adebola, O. O. (2006). The Role of Informal Private Sector in Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) in Lagos, Nigeria – A Developing Country. Philadelphia P.A, Proceeding of the 21st International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, 1(1): 1-8. (Waste Collection)

Adeyemi, A.S. Olorunfemi, J.F. and Adewoye, T.O. (2001). Waste Scavenging in Third World Cities: A case study in Ilorin, Nigeria. The Environmentalist, 21 (2): 93-96. (Waste Collection)

Adisa, (2000) In: Muktar, M. (2011). The Economics of Waste Scavenging in Kano State. (Waste Collection)

Department of Economics, Bayero University, Kano- Nigeria. Pp. 4-5. (Waste Collection)

Ado, M. (1998) In: Muktar, M. (2011). The Economics of Waste Scavenging in Kano State.

Department of Economics, Bayero University, Kano- Nigeria. Pp. 4-5. (Waste Collection)

Agarwal, A. Singhmar, A. Kulshrestha, M. and Mittal, A.K. (2005). Municipal Solid Waste Recycling and Associated Markets in Delhi, India: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 44 (1): 73-90. (Waste Collection)

Agunwamba, J.C. (2003). Analysis of Scavengers’ Activities and Recycling in some Cities. (Waste Collection)

European Union (EU), (2005). Communication From the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – Taking sustainable use of resources forward – A Thematic Strategy on the Prevention and Recycling of Waste, COM(2005) 666 Final. Accessed from: (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2005:0666:FIN:EN:PDF) on 1 July 2011. (Waste Collection)

European Environment Agency (EEA), (2011). Waste Opportunities; Past and Future Climate Benefits from Better Municipal Waste Management in Europe, Annual European Union Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–2009 and Inventory Report 2011, EEA Technical Report No 2/2011, European Environment Agency. Accessed from: (http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/european-union-greenhouse-gas-inventory-2011) on 1 July 2011. (Waste Collection)

Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), (2007). Delhi Ranks Poorly in Solid Waste Management. FICCI in News. Business Line, February 22, 2007. Accessed from: http://www.ficci.com/news/viewnews1.asp?news_id=949 on 12/08/08. (Waste Collection)

Fofana M. (2009). Program Officer Natural Resources Management, Swedish International Development Cooperation (SIDA), Bamako, Personal communication. (Waste Collection)

Gbekor, A. (2003). Domestic Waste Management. Ghana Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Newsletter, 47 (5). Accra: Ghana EPA. (Waste Collection)

Gill, K. (2007). Interlinked Contracts and Social Power: Patronage and Exploitation in India‘s Waste Recovery Market. Journal of Development Studies, 43 (8): 1448-1474. (Waste Collection)

Gilpin, A. (1996). Dictionary of Environment and Development. Chester and New York, John Wiley and Sons. (Waste Collection)

waste collection

(Get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

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