ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES OF FEMALE SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING IN SOME SELECTED SCHOOLS IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA
The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude and practice of family planning among female secondary school students in Ogun State, Nigeria. The ex-post facto research design was used for this study and the sample size consisted of 384 respondents. To achieve this purpose, a researcher-developed a questionnaire that was used as an instrument for data collection. The population of the study comprised of 72,844 women of reproductive age. The instrument was vetted by five jurors from the Departments of Physical and Health Education and Nursing Sciences.
Three hundred and eighty-four (384) copies of questionnaire were distributed to the respondents. Three hundred and seventy-nine (379; 98.7%) were adequately filled and retrieved from respondents. Five (5; 1.3%) copies of the questionnaire were not filled correctly and therefore, those were not used. A multi-stage sampling procedure was employed which comprised of; stratified, simple random, purposive, proportionate sampling procedure.
The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages, mean and standard deviation. To test the formulated hypotheses, one-sample t-test was used. All the formulated null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Background of the Study
The act of giving birth is the most serious labour in the world (Ademowore, 2011). The explosive increase in the nation’s population emanating from indiscriminate childbearing, apart from a small number of privileged and conscientious countries that have succeeded in reducing the population growth, each pregnancy and birth remains a risk fatal experience for hundreds of millions of women worldwide.
Family planning is a means by which individuals or couples space the process of conception, pregnancy and childbirth in intervals, mutually determined by both husband and wife in order to have desired number of children that they can conveniently cater for their needs (Delano, 2010).
According to Ahmed (2014), Family Planning is the factor that may be considered by a couple in a committed relationship and each individual involved in deciding if and when to have children. Though rarely articulated, family planning may involve consideration of the number of children a couple wish to have as well as the age at which they wish to have them.
Family Planning are obviously influenced by external factors such as marital situation, career considerations, financial position, any disabilities that may affect their ability to have children and raise them, beside many other considerations… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Statement of the Problem
There is no doubt that Nigeria is one of the most populous country in Africa. The researcher observed that the problem of many children per family contributes to poverty, unhealthy, under-fed and ill-educated.
The researcher observed that frequent birth by the mothers had been associated to a serious health problem to the mothers and their children; the health of the mothers is in coma due to frequent discharge of blood which is not regained before the conception of another pregnancy; and this accounted for thousands of deaths of women… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Objective of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of family planning among female secondary school students in Ogun state, Nigeria. The specific purposes of the study are to assess:
- The knowledge on family planning among female secondary school students of Ogun state, Nigeria… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Literature was reviewed on the subject matter using sub-headings beneath in a manner pertinent and reflective of the topic with the intent to discuss on the “Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice ( KAP) of family planning among female secondary school students in Ogun state, Nigeria under the following sub-headings:
Family planning has attracted attentions all over the world due to its relevance in decision making. Population growth and development (Samuel 2010), defined family planning as the practice that helps individuals or couples to attain certain objectives such as avoiding unwanted pregnancies, bringing about wanted babies at the right time, regulating, the interval between pregnancies, controlling the time at which birth occurs in relation to the ages of parents and determining the number of children in the family.
Family planning is a means of reproductive health. In spite of the hue and cry in and outside Nigeria about family planning or birth control. Individuals are still confused about its meaning, the methods involved, the advantages and disadvantages and the factors hindering its wide application in Nigeria, (Hiffh and Ezeah, 2014)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Theory and research are very closely interrelated. In –fact there is a strong relationship between theory and research, especially in two ways: on the first hand, theory guides research by providing guidelines and basic assumptions, on the other hand research provides ways of establishing, formulating, strengthening, and revising a theory. “A theory is a set of systematically tested and logically interrelated propositions that have been developed through research and explain social phenomena” (Sarantakos, 2013). The theoretical frameworks in relation to this study are:
- Demographic Transition Theory
An alternative to Malthusian theory is the demographic transition theory, developed initially in early 1940s by Kingsley Davis (1945) and extended by Ansley Coale (1974 to 1986) and others (Weeks, 2003). Demographic transition theory proposes that countries pass through a predictable and consistent sequence of population patterns linked to the degree of technological development in the society, ending with a situation in which the birthrates and death rates are both relatively low.
Overall, the population level is predicted to eventually stabilized, with little subsequent increase or decrease over the long term… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
In this section, a review of relevant literature researches will be carried out. The essence is to have a critical look at how other researchers have approached the investigation on the study of knowledge, attitudes and practice of family planning among female secondary school students in Ogun state, Nigeria; but also in other countries.
In a cross-sectional study conducted by Mbouda (2010), from Cameroon. Multistage random technique was used, 120 household were selected. Participants were women aged at least 15 years and above, sexually active. Data were collected using interview and structured pre-test questionnaire… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Ex-post-facto research design was considered suitable for this study, since there would be no manipulation of information from the respondents by the researcher. Ex-postfacto research design is a method of testing possible antecedents of events that had happened which cannot be manipulated or controlled (Ademuwagun, 2012).
Population of the Study
The population of the study comprised of 72, 844 female secondary school students of reproductive age (15 – 49years) in Ogun state, Nigeria. Based on the data collected by (World Population Women Data Sheet, 2014), the number of Women in Ogun state was approximately 1,104,117 out of which 72,844 estimate number were female secondary school students of the three (3) already existing senatorial districts in Ogun state.
Sample and Sampling Procedures
For the purpose of this study, 384 respondents were used as the sample size based on Krejcie and morgan (1970) table for determination, which states that for the population of 70,000 and above, 384 considered adequate for the study… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among female secondary school students in Ogun state Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, three hundred and eighty four (384) copies of questionnaire were purposively distributed to the respondents. Out of these 384 copies of the questionnaire administered, three hundred and seventy nine (379) (98.7%) copies of questionnaire were adequately filled and returned… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Before the presentation of results and discussion of key findings, according to the formulated hypotheses the demographic characteristics of the respondents are presented in table 1.
Table 1: Respondent Responses
The above table shows that most of the female secondary school students who responded are married. Regarding religion affiliation, the table above reveals that many of the respondents (231, 60.9%), practiced Islam and on the other hand, 148 (39.1%) respondents were Christians… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of family planning among female secondary school students in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three purposes, three research questions and three hypotheses respectively were formulated and tested for this study. Related literature was reviewed under the conceptual framework, theoretical framework and empirical studies… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Summary of Major Findings
The following are the summary of the findings;
Female secondary school students in Ogun state of Nigeria are knowledgeable about family planning (t=3.201; p value < 0.021)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions were drawn;
- Female secondary school students in Ogun state of Nigeria are knowledge about family planning p value < 0.021… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
On the basis of the conclusions drawn, the following recommendations were made:
Federal, State and Local Government health authorities should encourage women in sustaining their knowledge of family planning through community mobilization and enlighten programme… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Ademowore, S. A. (2011). Review of Maternal Mortality at Wesley Guild, Ilesha, Nigeria in Obstetrics and Gynecology in Developing Countries. Proceeding of an International Conference at Ibadan.
Ademuwagun, L. O. (2012). Research Methodology and Statistics 3rd Edition; Ibadan: Heineman, 17 – 20
Adeotu, A. C. (2014). Some Socio-Psychological Aspects of Fertility among Women in an African City. Journal of Economic and Social Resources (9): 67-79.
Agbakuribe, B. C. (2011). Family Planning Practice among Men and Women in Gwagulada (FCT), Implication for Guidance, Unpublished Dissertation University of Abuja, Nigeria.
Ahmed, S. G. (2014). Unwanted Fertility among the Poor. An Inequality Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 85(2): 100-106.
Ajzen, I. Fishbein, M. (2003). Questions Raised by a Reasoned Action Theory: Journal of Health Psychology. (3): 160-197.
Ali, M. Saeed J. and White, O. (2010). Family Planning practice among current married women in Kahurpur, Pakistan Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Pakistan 15 (7): 422-525.
Allman, J. (2012). Trends in unwanted children in the developing world. Studies in Family Planning 88(4): 267-277.
Ansley, C. Kingsley, D; (1986). Demographic transition theory and it application to Family Planning. 4th (edition) Fald Press, 4 -9.
Aziz, Q. (2011) Demographic Challenges on Family Planning. Pakistan Time Press, Pakistan, 5th Edition; 44-47.
Bougaarts, J. (2007). The Causes of Unmet needs for Contraceptive and the Social Content of Service. Studies in Family Planning: Goodwill Publishers Holton:16-27
Centre for Disease Control (2011). Family Planning Methods and Practice: Africa,Centre for Diseases and Control (CDC) Atlanta Georgia 1(60): 71-77.
Chingyayipe, T. (2013). Modern family planning methods: Unpublished Essay Submitted to the Development of Health Science, University of Illori, Kwara State.
Danlaire, D. & Dodoo, A. (2014). Does Discussion of Family Planning Improves Knowledge of Partners Attitude Toward Contraception‟s. GuHmacher Institute.
Daulaire, N & Murphy, C. & Charles, L. (2012) Promises to Keep: The Toll of Unintended Pregnancies on Women lies in the Developing World. Global Health Council: 1-46.
Derek, L. J (1998). Every Women: A Gynecological Guide for Life, 8 Edition, Collins brothers press101 – 107.
Ebun, D. E. (2014). Guide to Family Planning Ibadan 3rd edition: Spectrum Books Limited, 20-24.
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