POLITICAL MARKETING IN nigeria
POLITICAL MARKETING IN NIGERIA
This study was conducted to evaluate the use of marketing in politics, with a focus on the PDP and the APC. The study contends that marketing has an important impact in politics.
The study thoroughly identifies how politicians were able to bring their political activities to the grassroots level of distinct areas using market segmentation.
The researcher went on to investigate why the parties were effective in certain areas. The data for this study were acquired by a questionnaire and an oral interview, with the questionnaire serving as the primary mode of data collection.
The study's respondents were selected using a basic random approach. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made for implementation. Politicians should use political market segmentation to carry out their campaigns at the grassroots level of each community.
1.1 Background for the Study
For individuals with real-world political experience, it is a source of thrilling and engaging adventures. The ultimate goal of political marketing is to gain power. In Nigeria, politics is a game of survival of the fittest.
Political marketing encompasses a wide range of marketing, which is the identification, anticipating, and satisfying of client needs in a profitable manner. Politics is a wholly non-business organisation that is not aiming to maximise profits.
Political marketing in Nigeria has long been fraught with controversy. This has become one of the obstacles for marketing in emerging countries. Political marketers argued that Nigeria was not ready for this type of game.
They bolstered their argument by pointing out that in Nigeria, the number of politically educated people is endless, therefore politics will fail.
According to these opponents, marketing philosophy is too complex and abstract to be grasped in a developing country. In addition, being a developing economy with limited technology, production is more of a marketing issue.
The campaigns of 1979, 1983, and 1999 demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt that political marketing awoke from a deep hibernation in Nigeria during the 1979 and 1983 elections.
Different political parties developed a promotional mix to communicate their concept to the grassroots level in each community. During the campaign, the NPN and UPN, which were in the lead, used strong market segmentation to beat their political opponents to third, fourth, and fifth place.
After many years of military dictatorship, during which individual freedom, democracy, and the rule of law were repeatedly and profoundly destroyed, the nation's difficulties as it enters the twenty-first century are the restoration of civil democratic institutions.
The reconciliation of our many peoples, the restoration of the spirit of unity and fraternity in the nation, and the revitalization of the people's powers to establish a flourishing industrial democracy.
In truth, the APC was not alone in promoting her manifestos to the Nigerian people. The party pinned herself to five cardinal point programmes, which were:
a. Free education in primary school
b. Quality medical care at a subsidised rate
c. Quality education at the secondary and tertiary levels.
d. Computerization of the tertiary institution library.
e. agricultural development.
Often, the ideas of these political parties are simply propaganda, and the paper work in most cases contradicts the party's actual control measures when in power. Political marketing, as a result, bears the brunt of political weight.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
Political marketing campaigns are similar to diplomacy. As most diplomats stated, if you don't have the facts or the law on your side, simply shout what Obasanjo's political opponents were attempting to do when their contributions to democracy in general, and education in particular, were undeniable.
Political marketing is gaining traction in Nigeria, where some politicians have little or no formal education, bringing them to the stage of appreciating and adopting marketing strategies in politics.
Politicians today place a high value on political marketing.
In this study, it is vital to highlight the actions of each political party and how, through marketing segmentation, they were able to carry out these activities at the grassroots level of the community.
We are also looking to determine where these operations were successful and what factors contributed to the collapse of particular political parties in certain areas.
1.3 Purpose and Objectives of the Study
In the introduction, we looked at political marketing as the three pegs around which it revolved.
1. Identify marketing efforts in politics.
2. Consider the significance of marketing politics.
3. Another goal of this study is to discover
4. Investigate other approaches besides political marketing.
1.4 Central Research questions
The goal of this project is to investigate:
1. Why is political marketing crucial for politicians in Nigeria?
2. Understand why politicians employ thugs and violence to get folks to vote for them. and
3. That is why we believe marketing methods are relevant in the political arena.
1.5 Formulation of Hypothesis
Hypothesis, in its most basic form, is a guess; it is a confirmed preposition that tentatively explains some facts about events.
A hypothesis is a statement of assumptions about the nature of the world. The decision to conduct this research is to demonstrate specific facts that will serve as a benchmark for the realisation of the following expectation.
Ho: Political marketing isn't important to Nigerian politicians.
Hi: Political marketing is important to Nigerian politicians.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research covers all 36 states in Nigeria.
Because of the limited time and space available to complete and submit these research works, as well as the geographical location of each state, we have divided Nigeria into six market groups, which are:
1. North South Zones, which include the core north, such as Kano and Kaduna.
2. North Central Zones, which include middle belt states such as Niger and Kogi State.
3. North-east zones, which include Maiduguri and Zamfara states.
4. South West Zones, which include Niger-Delta State, Delta, and Edo State.
5. The South East zone is made up of Igbos from Imo, Anambra, and Enugu State.
6. South-South zone, which includes the Yoruba states.
For the purpose of market segmentation, each zone is treated as a separate market.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The relevance of this finding cannot be overstated.
1. It will allow politicians to recognise and employ marketing strategies in politics rather than immoral or violent means of influencing the populace.
2. It will teach marketing students that marketing is not limited to corporate organisations forever.
3. This study will be used as a reference by other researchers who may want to do additional research in the region under examination.
4. It might be a course of study at our higher education institution because we have political science, allowing us to sanitise the political environment of society from violence.
5. For the markets, it will result in employment, and your services will be required to provide marketing system methods or strategies for the party's political goals.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
This research will focus on political marketing in Nigeria, as well as the assessment.
Some of the questionnaires generated and given to respondents were not returned in sufficient numbers to allow for a thorough examination of the respondents.
Finally, the researcher did not have access to important materials or a thorough examination.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
a.Marketing: According to Kotler, in his book Marketing Management: The Millennium Edition (2007). Marketing
Marketing is a social process by which individuals and groups receive what they require and want through an exchange process.
According to the American Marketing Association, marketing is the act of planning and carrying out the conception, production, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services in order to produce exchanges that meet individual and organisational objectives. Dictionary of Marketing Terms (1992).
b. Politics: According to Nnoli (2000), politics is about power, influence, and value. It refers to all of the activities that are directly or indirectly related to the seizure of state power, its consolidation, and its use.
c. Political Marketing: In his paper on the birth of political marketing in Nigeria, Orsaah (2002) examines the functions and use of marketing system methods or tactics to achieve political aims.
He goes on to say that political marketing is the use of marketing tactics in politics to influence the electorate's (consumers') voting (purchasing) decisions.
d. Aspirant: Someone who is running for political office before to and during primary (Orianwote, 2000).
e. Candidate: A person or individual nominated following the primaries to represent a specific political party in the general election (Orianwote, 2000).
f. Campaign: This is described as a carefully planned and coordinated sequence of promotional efforts centred on a candidate.