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Road accidents are on the rise as a result of the high rate of migration from rural to urban regions. With urbanisation, people are finding it simpler to buy vehicles and use them for their daily activities.

As a result, the number of road accidents has reached an all-time high, with an estimated 2000 deaths in four months across the country.

Despite the fact that we record a large number of accidents, we are unable to learn from them and make improvements with the same roads killing lives all the time.

As a result of the necessity for an Observatory System, the system was created to aid in the data collection process, storage, and visualisation of data to aid in decision making and also knowing how to reduce the threat of road accidents.



1.1 Statement Of The Problem
Nigerian Observatory System for Tracking Road Accidents.

What exactly is a traffic accident? Many people believe that RTAs (Road Traffic Accidents) occur when a vehicle or motorcycle collides with another vehicle or hits an individual, but an accident is much more than that.

A road accident occurs when at least one road vehicle collides with another vehicle or hits an individual on a road open to public circulation, and at least one person is injured or killed.

Natural disasters and intentional acts (murder, suicide) are not included (National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies, 2016).

Road traffic accidents cost over 1.2 million lives each year and have a significant influence on health and development; they are one of the leading causes of death in young adults and children aged 15 to 29 years (World Health Organisation, 2015).

In 2015, 35,092 individuals were killed in motor vehicle accidents, while the United States Department of Transportation’s most recent estimate of the yearly financial cost of wrecks was $242 billion USD (Highway Loss Data Institute, 2015).

According to a WHO report, India ranks first in the world in terms of the number of RTA deaths. According to data from 2007, 114,590 individuals died as a result of RTAs in India.

China comes in second with 89,455 deaths. RTA wounds are growing more common, and their negative repercussions considerably outweigh those of both transmissible and noncommunicable diseases (Aubakirova, Kossumov, & Igissinov, 2013). To date, traffic accidents have become one of the leading causes of injury, disability, and death globally.
Because they are far underdeveloped and control measures are not well in place, developing countries have more than developed first and second world countries. Even if control mechanisms are in place, the rate of corruption and lack of concern has eclipsed the control measures.

It also has a negative impact on countries since it decreases the principal driving power of the economic population, where men are the primary breadwinners.

and having the greatest rates of fatality in RTAs, Males had more accidents than women, according to research, because of poor habits they associate with when driving, such as speeding, eating or drinking, unsafe overtakes, not wearing seat belts, and so on (Highway Loss Data Institute, 2015).

The impact of accidents on the GDP of rich, undeveloped, and developing countries differs as well. A conservative estimate puts the cost of an accident on the GDP of developed countries at 1%, while developing countries are predicted to pay nearly 5%.

The so-called “golden hour” and “diamond half an hour,” when crucial medical attention is delivered to injured in the first hour after an accident occurs and injury is inflicted, is one mechanism for reducing death from RTAs.

We must have realised by now that RTAs are not limited to a single region of the world, and the lives claimed by RTAs are not limited to a specific demographic range. RTAs can potentially cause severe damage, rendering a person permanently incapacitated.

Nigeria, one of the most populated countries on the planet, had 2,503 road crashes in the second quarter of 2017, with speed infractions being the leading cause (Source, Bureau, Road, & Corps, 2017).

1.3Objectives Of The Research
The goal of this research is to design and deploy an observatory system to monitor road accidents in Nigeria and visualise them based on severity, location, driver, vehicle type, casualty, and, in certain cases, fatalities.

It would also be used to monitor the cause of the incidents and how they would be treated; the system could be used to make certain judgements when attempting to improve the safety of the three routes and when building new roads and bridges.

It would be a very good source of data collection, as Nigeria lacks a system for managing road accidents and users. If properly managed, the system may be used to know and maintain track of the number of vehicles and drivers in the country, regardless of whether they have been involved in an accident or not.

1.4 Motivations
The lack of a much-needed and comprehensive source of data and information regarding road accidents in Nigeria is the impetus for this topic. Some crucial decisions cannot be implemented or addressed without this information.

This study will be able to indicate the locations in the country with the highest frequency of accidents. This would lead to greater research on how to make roads safer, and with the newest technical advancements, the system could be used as a data warehouse where predictive analysis could be done to reduce problems before they arise.

1.5 Research Methodology
The Drupal content management system will be utilised to construct the web interface and information source for this study.

Drupal is used because of its rich content, it is secure and open source, it has been used for numerous websites and information systems and it is reliable, it is also free making it cost efficient,

Drupal has a lot of modules that are also free and easy to use, it is managed by a large user base, and has security patches updated on a regular basis making it very resilient to attacks.

A RDBMS (Relational Database Model) will be utilised for the database, with MySQL as the database engine. I will also use jmerrise as a tool to create diagrams and classes for database tables and databases.

1.6 Expected Result Among the expected results are the online collection and processing of road traffic data and accident records,

as well as a robust source of information that will be used by the agencies concerned and parastatals that may require accurate and up-to-date information about road accidents.

When an accident occurs, the system can be expanded with sensors to promptly report to all emergency agencies such as NEMA (National Emergency Management Agency), FRSC (Federal Road Safety Commission), and nearby hospitals with standby ambulance. The information system will also produce infographics for visualisation.

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