1.1 Background to the Study
Instructional supervision in school is a tool of quality control in the school system. It is a phase of school administration which focuses primarily on the achievement of appropriate expectationsof the educational system (Peretomode, 2004).It constitutes those activities carried out by the instructional supervisor to improve instruction at all levels of the school system.The role of the instructional supervisor is to facilitate the implementing of the various educational programmes aimed at improving the learning situation. Teachers whether old or new on the teaching job need necessary support in implementing the instructional programmes.
Instructional supervisors as a social supervisors, therefore, need to provide this support to teachers; they have to be involved in implementation of instructional programmes by overseeing what teachers are doing with the students. A good instructional supervisor should devote himself to supervise the teaching-learning processes of teachers and other workers in the school system to ensure that they conform to the generally accepted principles and practice of education. In the school system, the responsibility of coordinating these activities normally falls on the instructional supervisor. Instructional supervisor is a professional leader who holds the key position in the programme of instruction. If the teachers are not well supervised, their disposition to teaching may be adversely affected and the instructional purposes may not be realized. This may lead to low quality of instruction and invariably, teachers’ lack of commitment to job. To this end, the instructional supervisor provides professional guidance to teachers in order to improve the conditions which affect learning and growth of the students and teachers. In discharging his supervisory role, the instructional supervisor can help the teachers achieve better task performance in the following areas: preparation of lesson plan and lesson notes before lesson delivery, good use of instructional methods and teaching aids; keeping and maintaining of school records, classroom management among others (Nnabuo, 1996). Therefore supervision is a very sensitive job which demands a lot of time and energy in planning and implementation.
Record keeping is one of the approaches to instructional supervisors’ role in schools. Record keeping is very pertinent for management effectiveness in any organization or institution. It is not enough to just keep records, but it should be noted that how records are kept and used should be seen as essential to influence teachers in their disposition to teaching tasks in schools. The keeping of academic records in school as entrenched in Nigeria, Public education edict of National policy in education 1974 carries penalties for those who fail to keep them. School academic records are information banks of what has been done or known, of what is to be done and how things are to be done (Koko & Nwiyi, 2006) school records provide useful source of information not only for the school but also for the large society and without records keeping knowledge and leaning would be hampered.
Delegation of supervisory or peer supervision functions is another supervisory role which entails delegating supervision of day-to-day activities as an administrative function to the teachers in the schools. These teachers are in charge of the use of time, materials, co-ordination of students, lesson notes, updating both statutory and non-statutory records, meetings of different kinds and so on. As such when teachers are assigned to supervise their fellow teachers and students as well, they tend to do better in terms of regular attendance to school,instructional delivery and involving themselves in extracurricular activities. This supervisory role when adopted by school instructional supervisors will enhance teachers’ effectiveness in performing their prescribed duties.
Another aspect of instructional supervision is classroom observation, which is a formal or informal observation of teaching while it is taking place in a classroom or other learning environment. It is a unique device used by instructional supervisors for the purpose of providing teachers with constructive critical feedback aimed at improving their classroom management and instructional techniques. In order to improve upon teachers’ disposition to teaching, supervision by the instructional supervisor is necessary as a top priority in statutory role.
Instructional evaluation is a systematic process of finding the worth, desirability, effectiveness and adequacy of instruction based on definite criteria and purposes. As such, instructional supervisors seek to evaluate teachers’ evaluation exercise is exercised as they seek practical ways to improve their instruction. That is, evaluation activity is not extrinsic to instruction but it is intrinsically involved in instruction itself and instructional improvement.
Teaching, being a dynamic activity, requires a good disposition and certain specific competencies from its practitioners. Teachers’ proficiency depends on the disposition they possess towards the profession.For the professional growth of the teachers and improvement in education, the disposition held by them is very important. How a teacher performs his/her duty as a teacher is dependent to a great extent on her disposition which can make the work not only easier but also more satisfying and professionally rewarding. A negative and unfavorable disposition makes the teaching task harder, tedious and unpleasant. In addition, a teachers’ disposition also influences the behavior their students. Thus effective and productive learning on the part of students can be achieved only by teachers with desirable disposition.To enhance this, instructional supervisors’ roles in school must be adequately positioned for effectiveness and efficiency to influence teachers in their disposition to teaching tasks. The incessant condemnation of content of education by the parents is often based on the academic performance of their wards in public examination conducted by West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO). The buck is always passed on the teachers/teaching workforce in institutions. Teachers are thought to be always interested in other activities which generate additional income and factor of poor academic performance by students. Past and recent adjustment of teacher’s salary together with other Labour workforce by the state and Federal Government could not arrest the dwindling performance of students in public examination.
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